The Q fever epidemic in The Netherlands: history, onset, response and reflection

@article{Roest2010TheQF,
  title={The Q fever epidemic in The Netherlands: history, onset, response and reflection},
  author={Hendrik I. J. Roest and Jeroen J.H.C. Tilburg and Wim van der Hoek and P Vellema and Fred G. van Zijderveld and Corn{\'e} H. W. Klaassen and Didier Raoult},
  journal={Epidemiology and Infection},
  year={2010},
  volume={139},
  pages={1 - 12}
}
The 2007-2009 human Q fever epidemic in The Netherlands attracted attention due to its magnitude and duration. [] Key Result Q fever abortions were registered on 30 dairy goat and dairy sheep farms between 2005 and 2009. A total of 3523 human cases were notified between 2007 and 2009. Proximity to aborting small ruminants and high numbers of susceptible humans are probably the main causes of the human Q fever outbreak in The Netherlands. In general good monitoring and surveillance systems are necessary to…

Molecular investigation of the Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands. The largest outbreak caused by Coxiella burnetii ever reported

TLDR
The 2007–2009 human Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands attracted attention due to its magnitude and duration and good monitoring and surveillance systems are necessary to assess the real magnitude of Q fever.

Shifting priorities in the aftermath of a Q fever epidemic in 2007 to 2009 in The Netherlands: from acute to chronic infection.

From 2007 to 2009, the Netherlands faced large seasonal outbreaks of Q fever, in which infected dairy goat farms were identified as the primary sources. Veterinary measures including vaccination of

Epidemic Q fever in humans in the Netherlands.

TLDR
In 2009 several veterinary control measures were implemented including mandatory vaccination of dairy goats and dairy sheep, improved hygiene measures, and culling of pregnant animals on infected farms, which probably ended the Q fever outbreak for which the Netherlands was ill-prepared.

The 2007–2010 Q fever epidemic in The Netherlands: characteristics of notified acute Q fever patients and the association with dairy goat farming.

TLDR
In 2010, there was a sharp decline in the number of notified cases following the implementation of control measures on dairy goat and sheep farms such as vaccination, hygiene measures and culling of pregnant animals on infected farms, which have most likely ended the outbreak.

Q fever in humans and farm animals in four European countries, 1982 to 2010.

  • M. GeorgievA. Afonso S. More
  • Medicine, Biology
    Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin
  • 2013
TLDR
A review of the epidemiology of Q fever in humans and farm animals between 1982 and 2010, using case studies from four European countries (Bulgaria, France, Germany and the Netherlands), highlights gaps in knowledge, and future research needs.

Veterinary aspects of a Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands between 2005 and 2012

In a six week period from May 2007 onwards, almost one hundred patients from Herpen, a small village in the province of Noord-Brabant, were diagnosed with a lower respiratory tract infection, and

Dairy Sheep Played a Minor Role in the 2005–2010 Human Q Fever Outbreak in The Netherlands Compared to Dairy Goats

TLDR
It is concluded that dairy sheep did not play a major role in the Dutch Q fever outbreak, and that no Q fever patients could be linked directly to dairy sheep farms, although this may have happened in individual cases.

Estimation of acute and chronic Q fever incidence in children during a three-year outbreak in the Netherlands and a comparison with international literature

TLDR
In the 3-year Dutch epidemic, few childhood cases were reported, with pulmonary symptoms leading, and none with a serious presentation, so at least 13 children are at high risk for developing chronic Q fever, and probably forty in the whole country.
...

References

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TLDR
Q fever should be considered in patients in The Netherlands who present with lower airway infection and, in rare cases, hepatitis, and Reporting atypical clusters ofpneumonia to the Municipal Health Service (GGD) is advisable.

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Since the steady rise in human cases which started in 2007, Q fever has become a major public health problem in the Netherlands with 2,357 human cases notified in the year 2009. Ongoing research

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TLDR
Risk factors for the acquisition of a recent Coxiella burnetii infection were studied and information leaflets were distributed on a large scale to ruminant farms, including hygiene measures to reduce the risk of spread between animals and to humans.

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TLDR
The first community outbreak of Q fever in the south of The Netherlands was reported in 2007, and this journal reported in this journal the first community incident in The Netherlands with an average of 11 cases annually.

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TLDR
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TLDR
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In search of hidden Q-fever outbreaks: linking syndromic hospital clusters to infected goat farms

TLDR
Large Q-fever outbreaks were reported in The Netherlands from May 2007 to 2009, with dairy-goat farms as the putative source, and Q fever was considered a plausible cause for these outbreaks.

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TLDR
Goats replaced cattle and sheep as the main source of human Coxiella burnetii infections and chronic forms of Q fever manifesting as endocarditis have not been found either in follow-ups of a Q-fever epidemic connected with goats imported from Bulgaria or in a serologic survey.

Sustained intensive transmission of Q fever in the south of the Netherlands, 2009.

TLDR
The Netherlands is again facing a sharp increase in Q fever notifications, after the unprecedented outbreaks of 2007 and 2008, and a large multidisciplinary research portfolio is expected to generate better knowledge about transmission and additional control measures.
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