The Psychopharmacology of ±3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and its Role in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

  title={The Psychopharmacology of ±3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and its Role in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder},
  author={Timothy Amoroso},
  journal={Journal of Psychoactive Drugs},
  pages={337 - 344}
  • Timothy Amoroso
  • Published 20 October 2015
  • Psychology, Biology
  • Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Abstract Prior to 1985, ± 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) was readily used as a psychotherapeutic adjunct. As MDMA became popular in treating various psychiatric illnesses by mental health professionals, the public started to abuse the MDMA-containing recreational drug “ecstasy.” This alarmed the DEA, which led to emergency scheduling of MDMA as a Schedule I drug. Due to its scheduling in 1985, human research and clinical use has been limited. The majority of research on MDMA has been… 

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The purpose of this manuscript is to share the latest psychedelic therapy research and to discuss how mental health counselors can contribute to this reemerging therapeutic trend.

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A randomized, controlled pilot study of MDMA (±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine)-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of resistant, chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

This randomized, double-blind, active-placebo controlled trial found that MDMA-assisted psychotherapy can be safely administered in a clinical setting and did not see statistically significant reductions in CAPS scores, although there was clinically and statistically significant self-reported PDS improvement.

The Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”)

Evidence for the occurrence of MDMA-induced neurotoxic damage in human users remains equivocal, although some biochemical and functional data suggest that damage may occur in the brains of heavy users.

Review of the pharmacology and clinical pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “Ecstasy”)

It is suggested that the recent increase in the number of reports of MDMA toxicity probably results from the widespread use of the drug at all night dance parties or “raves”, and suggestions for the rational treatment of the acute toxicity are made on the basis of both pharmacological studies in animals and current clinical practice.

A Clinical Plan for MDMA (Ecstasy) in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Partnering with the FDA

  • R. Doblin
  • Psychology
    Journal of psychoactive drugs
  • 2002
Abstract The FDA and the Spanish Ministry of Health have concluded that the risk/benefit ratio is favorable under certain circumstances for clinical studies investigating MDMA-assisted psychotherapy.

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  • A. Pentney
  • Psychology
    Journal of psychoactive drugs
  • 2001
A look at the history of these compounds suggests that they have the potential to be used safely as psychotherapeutic tools, and that the legal status of MDMA and MDA may be worth reconsidering.

Neurotoxicity of the psychedelic amphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine.

  • C. J. Schmidt
  • Biology, Psychology
    The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics
  • 1987
The neurochemical effects of the unique psychedelic agent, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), indicate it may be a serotonergic neurotoxin related to agents such as p-chloroamphetamine and could be partially blocked by the uptake inhibitor as long as 6 hr after drug administration.