The Production of Copper–Arsenic Alloys (Arsenic Bronze) by Cosmelting: Modern Experiment, Ancient Practice

  title={The Production of Copper–Arsenic Alloys (Arsenic Bronze) by Cosmelting: Modern Experiment, Ancient Practice},
  author={Heather N. Lechtman and Sabine Klein},
  journal={Journal of Archaeological Science},
Abstract Cosmelting experiments to produce copper–arsenic alloys were carried out by Lechtman in 1984. The experiments included crucible and furnace smelting techniques utilizing ores collected in the Peruvian Andes. Smelting charges consisted of mixtures of copper oxide ore with either copper sulpharsenide or iron sulpharsenide ore. The experimental furnaces were constructed to resemble furnaces excavated at Batan Grande, a large ore smelting site on the Peruvian north coast where copper… 
Fuel Efficiency of Ancient Copper Alloys: Theoretical Melting Thermodynamics of Copper, Tin and Arsenical Copper and Timber Conservation in the Bronze Age Levant*
The melting of pure or alloyed copper, tin and arsenical copper ingots or recycled objects was a drain on the timber and dung fuel resources of many cultures. This paper suggests formulae grounded in
Large scale smelting of speiss and arsenical copper at Early Bronze Age Arisman, Iran
We report analyses of different slag types found at the Early Bronze Age site of Arisman in North-West Iran. Here, an estimated 20 tons of slag provide evidence of sustained and large-scale
Are tin oxides inclusions in early archaeological bronzes a marker of metal recycling?
Abstract Bronze artifacts from Early Bronze Age in Europe often contain white inclusions in the metallic matrix, that are identified as tin oxides (SnO2 or Cassiterite). These inclusions are
Tin bronze replaced arsenical copper as the preferred alloy in the Levant for reasons that have long been debated. Found almost exclusively in graves, these two types of copper alloys share nearly
Archaeological Arsenical Bronzes and Equilibrium in the As-Cu System
Understanding the effects of impurities, segregation, undercooling, and solidification velocity is necessary to reconstruct prehistoric As-Cu alloy manufacturing processes and practices. Moreover,
Preliminary archaeometallurgical studies on copper extraction from polymetallic ore sources in Meymand, south central Iranian desert
The occurrences of polymetallic sulphide and arsenide deposits (Cu, Cu + Fe + As, Cu + Au + Fe, Cu + Zn) in Meymand, central Iran, make this region as one of the most important areas for studying the
Copper production and supra-regional exchange networks – Cu-matte smelting in the Balkans between 2000 and 1500 BC
Abstract The Balkan Peninsula played a crucial role for the introduction of metallurgy during the Copper Age and numerous archaeometallurgical examinations have delivered highly interesting insights
A Preliminary Study on the Loss of Iron and Arsenic in the Re‐Melting of Iron‐Bearing Arsenical Copper
Re-melting experiments were conducted with specimens made of high-arsenic copper alloys containing lead, iron and sulphur. The melting treatment at 1000°C in ambient conditions for 5 min was found to
Copper metallurgy of the Early Bronze Age in Thassos, north Aegean
Abstract Archaeometallurgical research of the last decade has added valuable information on copper and silver metallurgy practiced in the Bronze Age coastal settlements on Thassos in the north
Copper and Arsenical Copper During Eneolithic in Metallographic and Mechanical Properties Examination
Arsenical copper has been used since 5 millennium cal.BC, later exchanged by application of Cu-Sn alloys in metallurgy. This work presents the results of metallographic and mechanical properties


Some experiments with co-smelting to copper alloys
Can various minerals be smelted together to produce copper alloys? The potential for cosmelting of different minerals to produce mixed alloys is expressed by subtracting the free energies of the
Arsenic Bronze: Dirty Copper or Chosen Alloy? A View from the Americas
AbstractThis article is dedicated to Ronald F. TylecoteArchaeologists and historians of metallurgy have attempted to explain the gradual abandonment of arsenic bronze in favor of tin bronze in the
Pre-Hispanic copper alloy production at Batán Grande, Peru: interpretation of the analytical data for ore samples
Several pre-Hispanic mines and smelting sites dating to ca. 900-1100 have been partly excavated along the northern coast of Peru. This report of a long-term project discusses evidence from technical
Partitioning of trace elements between the ores, fluxes, slags and metal during the smelting of copper
Abstract This paper gives the results of smelting seven parcels of copper ores from well-known mining areas. The behaviour of the trace elements introduced from the ore, the fuel, and the fluxes has
Blowpipes versus Bellows in Ancient Metallurgy
AbstractIn the smelting of ores and the melting of metals during antiquity, the oxygen necessary for the combustion of the charcoal fuel was supplied by human breath through blowpipes; by ambient air
From Copper to Iron- the Origin of Metallic Materials
The development of copper extraction techniques and the subsequent appearance of bronzes and early ferrous alloys were probably based on close observation by prehistoric metal workers of the subtle
A Metallurgical Site Survey in the Peruvian Andes
AbstractTo help document and interpret the development of pre-Columbian metallurgy prior to the Spanish invasion of the Andes, the author conducted a survey of portions of northern and southern Peru
Batan Grande: A Prehistoric Metallurgical Center in Peru
This study provides strong support for the claim that central Andean metallurgy constituted one of the major independent metallurgical traditions of the world.
Principles Of Extractive Metallurgy
Principles of extractive metallurgy , Principles of extractive metallurgy , مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و اطلاع رسانی کشاورزی
El bronce y el horizonte medio
En un Congreso de Americanistas parece apropiado tratar temas referentes a grandes regiones geograficas o a multiples y diversos pueblos y culturas. Asi, la convencion arqueologica de "horizonte"