The Primary Cilium as the Cell's Antenna: Signaling at a Sensory Organelle

@article{Singla2006ThePC,
  title={The Primary Cilium as the Cell's Antenna: Signaling at a Sensory Organelle},
  author={Veena Singla and Jeremy F. Reiter},
  journal={Science},
  year={2006},
  volume={313},
  pages={629 - 633}
}
Almost every vertebrate cell has a specialized cell surface projection called a primary cilium. Although these structures were first described more than a century ago, the full scope of their functions remains poorly understood. Here, we review emerging evidence that in addition to their well-established roles in sight, smell, and mechanosensation, primary cilia are key participants in intercellular signaling. This new appreciation of primary cilia as cellular antennae that sense a wide variety… Expand
The Primary Cilium as a Complex Signaling Center
TLDR
Many of the recent advances contributing to the ascendancy of the primary cilium are reviewed and how the extraordinary complexity of this organelle inevitably assures many more exciting future discoveries. Expand
Primary cilia: Cell and molecular mechanosensors directing whole tissue function.
TLDR
The importance of ciliary mechanotransduction at the cell and tissue level is discussed, and how furthering molecular understanding of primary cilia mechanobiology may lead to therapeutic strategies to treat human diseases is discussed. Expand
Ciliogenesis: building the cell's antenna
TLDR
As cilia are important in sensing and processing developmental signals and directing the flow of fluids such as mucus, defects in ciliogenesis and length control are likely to underlie a range of cilium-related human diseases. Expand
Photoreceptor Sensory Cilium: Traversing the Ciliary Gate
TLDR
The studies that have revealed new knowledge of how photoreceptor cilia regulate their identity and function while coping with high metabolic and trafficking demands associated with processing light signal are discussed. Expand
Signaling through the Primary Cilium
TLDR
This review summarizes the current understanding of the role of these fascinating organelles in a wide range of signaling pathways, playing fundamental roles in embryonic patterning and organogenesis. Expand
What are those cilia doing in the neural tube?
TLDR
The links between cilia and Shh signaling, as well as suggesting additional roles for cilia, and mechanisms for their placement, in the neural tube, are discussed. Expand
The primary cilium
TLDR
An introductory overview of the current understanding of the structure and function of the cilium is provided, with a focus on the signaling pathways that are coordinated by primary cilia to ensure proper organ generation and maintenance. Expand
Structure and function of mammalian cilia
TLDR
All cilia can now be viewed as sensory cellular antennae that coordinate a large number of cellular signaling pathways, sometimes coupling the signaling to ciliary motility or alternatively to cell division and differentiation. Expand
A Ciliary View of the Immunological Synapse
TLDR
Common regulators and features shared by the immunological synapse and the primary cilium are reviewed that document the remarkable homology between these structures. Expand
Photoreceptor Sensory Cilium and Associated Disorders
The primary cilium is a microtubule-based extension of the plasma membrane, which is present in almost all cell types. Ciliary microtubules extend from a basal body (or mother centriole), which docksExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 127 REFERENCES
Vertebrate Smoothened functions at the primary cilium
TLDR
It is shown that mammalian Smoothened (Smo), a seven-transmembrane protein essential for Hh signalling, is expressed on the primary cilium, and Hh-dependent translocation to cilia is essential for Smo activity, suggesting that Smo acts at thePrimary cilia. Expand
Disruption of Bardet-Biedl syndrome ciliary proteins perturbs planar cell polarity in vertebrates
TLDR
It is shown that mice with mutations in genes involved in Bardet-Biedl syndrome share phenotypes with PCP mutants including open eyelids, neural tube defects and disrupted cochlear stereociliary bundles, and that Vangl2 localizes to the basal body and axoneme of ciliated cells, suggesting that cilia are intrinsically involved in PCP processes. Expand
Ciliogenesis defects in embryos lacking inturned or fuzzy function are associated with failure of planar cell polarity and Hedgehog signaling
TLDR
It is shown that Xenopus laevis orthologs of the Drosophila melanogaster PCP effectors inturned or fuzzy affected not only PCP-dependent convergent extension but also elicited embryonic phenotypes consistent with defective Hedgehog signaling, highlighting the interrelationships between cell polarity, cellular morphogenesis, signal transduction and cell fate specification. Expand
Cilia and disease.
TLDR
The function of primary cilia in some organs is being elucidated, in many other organs they have not been studied at all and it is probable that many more cilia-related disorders remain to be discovered. Expand
Two anterograde intraflagellar transport motors cooperate to build sensory cilia on C. elegans neurons
TLDR
It is shown that two anterograde IFT motor holoenzymes, kinesin-II and Osm-3–kinesin, cooperate in a surprising way to control two pathways of IFT that build distinct parts of cilia. Expand
Diego and Prickle regulate Frizzled planar cell polarity signalling by competing for Dishevelled binding
TLDR
It is shown that the ankyrin-repeat protein Diego binds directly to Dishevelled and promotes Frizzled signalling and can also be bound by theFrizzled PCP antagonist Prickle, and strikingly, Diego and Prickle compete with one another for Dishevlled binding, thereby modulating Frizzles/Dishevelling activity and ensuring tight control over Frizzling PCP signalling. Expand
Diego interacts with Prickle and Strabismus/Van Gogh to localize planar cell polarity complexes
TLDR
It is shown that the initial membrane association of Dgo depends on Fz, and that Dgo physically interacts with Stbm and Pk through its Ankyrin repeats, providing evidence for a PCP multiprotein complex. Expand
Drosophila KAP Interacts with the Kinesin II Motor Subunit KLP64D to Assemble Chordotonal Sensory Cilia, but Not Sperm Tails
TLDR
It is shown that mutations in the Drosophila KAP gene could eliminate the sensory cilia as well as the sound-evoked potentials of Johnston's organ (JO) neurons and both the DmKap and the Klp64D mutant adults produce vigorously motile sperm with normal axonemes. Expand
Planar cell polarization: an emerging model points in the right direction.
TLDR
New developments in the molecular understanding of PCP in Drosophila and vertebrates are discussed and the current data in a model is integrated to illustrate how interactions between PCP factors might function to generate planar polarity. Expand
Kinesin II and regulated intraflagellar transport of Chlamydomonas aurora protein kinase
TLDR
The results indicate that, in addition to its role in the constitutive transport of IFT particles and their cargo, kinesin II is essential for regulated translocation of proteins into flagella. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...