The Presence of Absence: Habenular Regulation of Dopamine Neurons and the Encoding of Negative Outcomes


Many patients with schizophrenia have pronounced deficits in the use of negative feedback to guide problem solving and learning, as seen on tasks like the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. There is now a compelling body of evidence from nonhuman primates that suggests transient decreases in dopamine cell activity may reflect the occurrence of unexpected negative… (More)


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