The Power of Testing Memory: Basic Research and Implications for Educational Practice

@article{Roediger2006ThePO,
  title={The Power of Testing Memory: Basic Research and Implications for Educational Practice},
  author={H. Roediger and Jeffrey D. Karpicke},
  journal={Perspectives on Psychological Science},
  year={2006},
  volume={1},
  pages={181 - 210}
}
A powerful way of improving one's memory for material is to be tested on that material. Tests enhance later retention more than additional study of the material, even when tests are given without feedback. This surprising phenomenon is called the testing effect, and although it has been studied by cognitive psychologists sporadically over the years, today there is a renewed effort to learn why testing is effective and to apply testing in educational settings. In this article, we selectively… Expand
Retrieval practice enhances new learning: the forward effect of testing
TLDR
The review shows that the forward effect of testing is a well replicated phenomenon in laboratory studies that has been observed for both veridical information and misinformation, and demonstrates that the effect may be applied to educational and clinical settings, enhancing learning in students and reducing memory deficits in clinical populations. Expand
Tests improve memory – no matter if you feel good or bad while taking them
TLDR
The present results suggest that testing seems to benefit long-term retention independently of the learner's affective state. Expand
Generalizing test-enhanced learning from the laboratory to the classroom
TLDR
Three experiments that extend the testing effect of brief articles, lectures, and materials in a college course to educationally relevant materials demonstrated a robust testing effect and revealed that an initial short-answer test produced greater gains on a final test than did an initial multiple-choice test. Expand
The testing effect under divided attention: Educational application.
TLDR
The testing effect persists even when retrieval occurs under distraction, and the encoding effects of retrieval and restudy appear to be similarly susceptible to distraction when learning complex educational information. Expand
Not New, but Nearly Forgotten: the Testing Effect Decreases or even Disappears as the Complexity of Learning Materials Increases
The testing effect is a finding from cognitive psychology with relevance for education. It shows that after an initial study period, taking a practice test improves long-term retention compared toExpand
Picking the right dose: the challenges of applying spaced testing to education.
  • Douglas P Larsen
  • Computer Science, Medicine
  • Journal of graduate medical education
  • 2014
TLDR
Two of the most rigorously and extensively studied learning principles in cognitive psychology are the effects of spacing and testing, which have been shown to be effective for a wide range of learners: older adults, middle school students, medical students,9 and residents. Expand
Testing the testing effect in the classroom
Laboratory studies show that taking a test on studied material promotes subsequent learning and retention of that material on a final test (termed the testing effect). Educational research hasExpand
Does Overt memory testing lead to better learning than Covert memory testing
The testing effect is described as an improvement of memory performance at a final test as a result of previous test sessions. Several studies reported that initial testing during learning provides aExpand
The positive and negative effects of testing in lifelong learning
Formal classroom learning is a lifelong pursuit. Many older adults return to school to advance their careers, learn new skills, or simply for personal fulfillment. As such, methods for improvingExpand
Best practices and boundary conditions
The idea of a memory test or of a test of academic achievement is often circumscribed. Tests within the classroom are recognized as important for the assignment of grades, and tests given forExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 208 REFERENCES
Testing the testing effect in the classroom
Laboratory studies show that taking a test on studied material promotes subsequent learning and retention of that material on a final test (termed the testing effect). Educational research hasExpand
Testing versus review: Effects on retention.
Taking a test on content that has just been studied is known to enhance later retention of the material studied, but is testing more profitable than the same amount of time spent in review? HighExpand
Test-Enhanced Learning
TLDR
Investigation of the testing effect with educationally relevant materials and whether testing facilitates learning only because tests offer an opportunity to restudy material concluded that testing is a powerful means of improving learning, not just assessing it. Expand
The Effects of Retention Tests upon Human Learning and Memory: an historical review and an experimental analysis
Whether and how the administration of one retention test affects performance in a subsequent test on the same material is a question of practical and theoretical interest to educationalists andExpand
Effects of Frequent Classroom Testing.
ABSTRACT The educational effects of frequent classroom testing have been studied and discussed since the early part of this century. Testing advocates have suggested that more frequent classroomExpand
Learning from Written Instructive Materials: An Exploration of the Control of Inspection Behavior by Test-Like Events
The main purpose of the present experiment was to find out: (a) whether adjunct, test-like questions have generally facilitating effects on learning from written instructional materials and (b)Expand
Retrieval-induced facilitation: initially nontested material can benefit from prior testing of related material.
TLDR
Three experiments examined how taking an initial test affects later memory for prose materials not initially tested, showing that testing enhanced recall 24 hr later for the initially nontested material. Expand
Untangling the benefits of multiple study opportunities and repeated testing for cued recall
Spacing multiple study opportunities apart from one another is known by psychologists to be a highly effective study method (see Dempster, 1996). This study examines whether including tests duringExpand
Studies in retention.
The importance of retention is shown by the fact that growth or improvement in skills, knowledges, and attitudes is dependent upon the learner's retention of the effects of previous experience. TheExpand
Long-Term Retention of Prose following Testing
Taking a test on content which has just been studied is known to enhance later retention of the material studied ( 1). This testing effect is generally examined through a retention test administeredExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...