The Potential Impact of Bystander Effects on Radiation Risks in a Mars Mission

  title={The Potential Impact of Bystander Effects on Radiation Risks in a Mars Mission},
  author={David J. Brenner and Carl D. Elliston},
  booktitle={Radiation Research},
Abstract Brenner, D. J. and Elliston, C. D. The Potential Impact of Bystander Effects on Radiation Risks in a Mars Mission. Radiat. Res. 156, 612–617 (2001). Densely ionizing (high-LET) galactic cosmic rays (GCR) contribute a significant component of the radiation risk in free space. Over a period of a few months—sufficient for the early stages of radiation carcinogenesis to occur—a significant proportion of cell nuclei will not be traversed. There is convincing evidence, at least in vitro… 

Fundamental space radiobiology.

  • G. Nelson
  • Physics
    Gravitational and space biology bulletin : publication of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology
  • 2003
Traditional concepts of dose and its associated normalization parameter, RBE (relative biological effectiveness), break down under experimental scrutiny, and probabilistic models of risk based on the number of particle traversals per cell may be more appropriate.

Effects of Very Low Fluences of High-Energy Protons or Iron Ions on Irradiated and Bystander Cells

The data suggest that at fluences of high-energy protons or iron ions less than about 5 cGy, the response in irradiated cell populations may be dominated by the bystander response.

Effects of low fluences of radiations found in space on cellular systems

  • K. Held
  • Physics
    International journal of radiation biology
  • 2009
This review will discuss selected issues related to cellular responses to the types of radiations found in space, with emphasis on comparison of cellular effects from high versus low linear energy transfer (LET) radiations and on effects that might be expected to predominate at the low radiation fluences characteristic of space, e.g., bystander effects and adaptive responses.

Harderian Gland Tumorigenesis: Low-Dose and LET Response

Theoretical modeling of the data show that a nontargeted effect model provides a better fit than the targeted effect model, providing important information at space-relevant doses of heavy ions.

Applications of particle microbeams in space radiation research.

  • M. Durante
  • Physics
    Journal of radiation research
  • 2009
Particle microbeams can deliver single charged particles of different charge and energy to single cells from different tissues, and microbeam studies are therefore very useful for improving current risk estimates for long-term space travel.

NEUDOSE: A CubeSat Mission for Dosimetry of Charged Particles and Neutrons in Low-Earth Orbit

The NEUtron DOSimetry & Exploration (NEUDOSE) CubeSat mission is introduced, which will provide new measurements of dose and space radiation quality factors to improve the accuracy of cancer risk projections for current and future space missions.

Health risks of space exploration: targeted and nontargeted oxidative injury by high-charge and high-energy particles.

Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the cellular responses to HZE particles, particularly under reduced gravity and situations of exposure to additional radiations, such as protons, should be useful in reducing the uncertainty associated with current models for predicting long-term health risks of space radiation.

High Content Analysis of Human Fibroblast Cell Cultures after Exposure to Space Radiation

To assess the stress response in human fibroblasts that were sent into space with the Foton-M3 mission, a pluralistic setup to measure DNA damage and inflammation response is developed by combining global and local dosimetry, image cytometry and multiplex array technology, thereby maximizing the scientific output.



The Bystander Effect in Radiation Oncogenesis: II. A Quantitative Model

An approach incorporating a radiobiological bystander response, superimposed on a direct response due to direct energy deposition in cell nuclei is discussed, and a quantitative model based on this approach is described for α-particle-induced in vitro oncogenic transformation.

Adaptive Response and the Bystander Effect Induced by Radiation in C3H 10T½ Cells in Culture

Assessment of the relative importance of the adaptive response and the bystander effect induced by radiation in C3H 10T½ cells in culture found that more cells were inactivated than were actually traversed by α particles.

Unexpected sensitivity to the induction of mutations by very low doses of alpha-particle radiation: evidence for a bystander effect.

The data are consistent with the conclusion that the enhanced efficiency of each nuclear traversal at low particle fluences is the result of mutations arising in nonirradiated, bystander cells.

Induction of a bystander mutagenic effect of alpha particles in mammalian cells.

These studies provide clear evidence that irradiated cells can induce a bystander mutagenic response in neighboring cells not directly traversed by alpha particles and that cell-cell communication process play a critical role in mediating the bystander phenomenon.

Relative Contribution of Bystander and Targeted Cell Killing to the Low-Dose Region of the Radiation Dose–Response Curve

Data are presented showing a method of correcting the overall survival curve to enable analysis of the relative contributions of the bystander effect and the effect attributable to direct interaction of the radiation with the target cell.

The Bystander Effect in Radiation Oncogenesis: I. Transformation in C3H 10T½ Cells In Vitro can be Initiated in the Unirradiated Neighbors of Irradiated Cells

Evidence suggesting a bystander effect, i.e., that unirradiated cells are responding to damage induced in irradiated cells, could have significant implications for risk estimation for low-dose radiation.

The oncogenic transforming potential of the passage of single alpha particles through mammalian cell nuclei.

The measured oncogenicity from exactly one alpha particle was significantly lower than for a Poisson-distributed mean of oneAlpha particle, implying that cells traversed by multiple alpha particles contribute most of the risk, and extrapolation from high-level radon risks may overestimate low-levelRadon risks.

Radon-exposed underground miners and inverse dose-rate (protraction enhancement) effects.

Assessment of risks of radon progeny exposure in homes using miner-based models should not assume an ever-increasing risk per unit dose, rather, it is more appropriate to apply risk models that take into account protraction enhancement and its diminution.

A new mechanism for DNA alterations induced by alpha particles such as those emitted by radon and radon progeny.

It is found that a relatively low dose of alpha-particles can result in the generation of extracellular factors, which, upon transfer to unexposed normal human cells, can cause excessive SCE to an extent equivalent to that observed when the cells are directly irradiated with the same irradiation dose.

Studies of bystander effects in human fibroblasts using a charged particle microbeam.

This study provides direct evidence for the production of transmissible, cell-to-cell effects between hit and non-hit cells individually exposed to charged particles.