The Pioneer Venus Program

  title={The Pioneer Venus Program},
  author={L. Colin and C. F. Hall},
  journal={Space Science Reviews},
The Pioneer Venus program encompasses two spacecraft missions, Orbiter and Multiprobe, to be launched and to encounter Venus during the 1978 Venus mission opportunity. The missions are described in detail including mission and spacecraft descriptions, scientific objectives and payloads. The ways in which the payloads address the major scientific questions concerning Venus are treated in subsequent papers. 
The Pioneer Venus Program
The nation's most extensive and intensive study of the planet Venus and its environment occurred during and subsequent to December 1978: Pioneer Venus. This introductory paper to a special issue ofExpand
The exploration of Venus
This paper is an introduction to a special issue ofSpace Science Reviews dedicated to the exploration of Venus and the role played by the Pioneer Venus program. The Pioneer Venus program consists ofExpand
Pioneer Venus Overview
A Pioneer Venus Overview is discussed. Pioneer Venus consists of two basic spacecraft: Orbiter and Multiprobe. The latter was separated into five separate vehicles near Venus. These were the probeExpand
Infrared radiometer for the Pioneer Venus orbiter. 1: Instrument description.
An IR remote sensing instrument, similar in principle to some of those on terrestrial meteorological satellites, was flown to Venus on board the Pioneer Venus orbiter. Observations of the atmosphereExpand
Pioneer Venus plasma observations of the solar wind-Venus interaction
Collection of data from the Ames plasma analyzer on the Pioneer Venus orbiter has permitted long-term measurements of the interaction of the solar wind with Venus. This paper presents a mapping ofExpand
Further Results of the Pioneer Venus Nephelometer Experiment
Backscattering data for the nephelometer experiments conducted aboard the Pioneer Venus mission probes, including data up to the highest altitudes measured by the probes, are presented. A few smallExpand
Preliminary Results of the Pioneer Venus Nephelometer Experiment
Tentative results from attempting to use the data from the nephelometer and cloud particle size spectrometer on the sounder probe to identify the indices of refraction of cloud particles in various regions of the Venus clouds are reported. Expand
Pioneer Venus Orbiter Planar Retarding Potential Analyzer Plasma Experiment
The retarding potential analyzer (RPA) on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Mission measures most of the thermal plasma parameters within and near the Venusian ionosphere. Parameters include total ionExpand
Lightning on Venus: Orbiter Detection of Whistler Signals (invited).
Recently Taylor et al. (1979a) presented preliminary evidence for lightning on Venus, based on Pioneer Venus orbiter detection of whistler mode signals as the spacecraft first traversed the nightsideExpand
The Polar Ionosphere of Venus Near the Terminator from Early Pioneer Venus Orbiter Radio Occultations
Fourteen profiles of electron density in the ionosphere of Venus were obtained by the dual-frequency radio occulation method with the Pioneer Venus orbiter between 5 and 30 December 1978 and are consistent with models in which O2+ dominates near the ionization peak and is replaced by O+ at higher altitudes. Expand