The Phoretic Association of Urnatella gracilis (Entoprocta:Urnatellidae) and Nanocladius downesi (Diptera:Chironomidae) on Corydalus cornutus (Megaloptera:Corydalidae)

@article{Tracy1983ThePA,
  title={The Phoretic Association of Urnatella gracilis (Entoprocta:Urnatellidae) and Nanocladius downesi (Diptera:Chironomidae) on Corydalus cornutus (Megaloptera:Corydalidae)},
  author={Bryn H. Tracy and Donald H. Hazelwood},
  journal={Freshwater Invertebrate Biology},
  year={1983},
  volume={2},
  pages={186 - 191}
}
  • B. Tracy, D. Hazelwood
  • Published 1 November 1983
  • Biology, Environmental Science
  • Freshwater Invertebrate Biology
Colonies of Urnatella gracilis Leidy and Nanocladius downesi (Steffan), Polypedilum sp. and Rheotanytarsus sp. larvae were discovered living phoretically on Corydalus cornutus (L.) larvae collected in the James River, Missouri. This is the first record for a phoretic association between U. gracilis and C. cornutus and the first record for chironomids living phoretically on C. cornutus in Missouri. Phoresy seems to provide U. gracilis with mobility and despersal within and out of the original… 
Phoretic Associations of Chironomidae (Diptera) on Corydalidae (Megaloptera) in Northwestern Costa Rican Streams
  • C. De la Rosa
  • Biology
    Journal of the North American Benthological Society
  • 1992
TLDR
Phoretic associations among three species of Chironomidae and two genera of Corydalidae were studied in streams in northwestern Costa Rica that varied in size, elevation, and water chemistry, finding large megalopteran larvae supported more chironomids than smaller larvae.
INCIDENCE OF CHIRONOMID PHORETICS ON HELLGRAMMITES IN STREAMS OF SOUTHERN MAINE
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Observed frequency of phoresy in these streams were similar to published rates for chironomid/hellgrammite associations, and this is the first documentation of chironOMid phoreSy on hellgrammites in Maine.
Records of Two Invertebrate Species in Kansas
The freshwater entoproct, Urnatella gracilis Leidy, was found attached to the valves of two species of unionid mussels, Lampsilis rafinesqueana Frierson and Lasmigona costata (Rafinesque) collected
Phoretic associations between Nanocladius asiaticus (Diptera, Chironomidae) and its hosts Gestroiella (Heteroptera, Naucoridae) and Euphaea masoni (Odonata, Euphaeidae) in streams in Western Thailand
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There was a positive correlation in body length between chironomids and naucorids and there are many benefits of symphoresis in the Chironomidae, such as improved feeding opportunities, increased mobility, suitable pupation sites and decreased predation risks.
Density dependent shifts in attachment site by the ectosymbiotic chironomid Nanocladius asiaticus on its megalopteran host Protohermes grandis
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The thorax (particularly the mesothorax) is the most suitable attachment site, and there is a possibility that chironomid larvae compete for this site.
Morphology and Ecology of Urnatella gracilis Leidy, (Entoprocta), a Freshwater Macroinvertebrate from Artificial Riffles of the Tombigbee River, Mississippi
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Urnatella gracilis was found to be a significant early colonizer of new substrata and an important member of the macroinvertebrate community.
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Commensalism is widespread among the Chironomidae and association with large-sized hosts is thought to make the chironomid commensal less vulnerable to a variety of freshwater predators which are in general gape limited.
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The symphoretic relationship between a species of Nanocladius and Kempnyia tijucana is recorded and described for the first time from southeastern Brazil and the larval position varied according to the stage of development of the chironomid, apparently being constant for young and old instars.
Phoresy in animals: review and synthesis of a common but understudied mode of dispersal
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The evolution of phoronts is discussed including the long‐standing idea that it can be a precursor to parasitism and other forms of symbioses and several areas of future research are suggested to improve the understanding of phoresy and its ecological and evolutionary significance.
Phoresy and commensalism of Chironomidae larvae ( Insecta : Diptera ) in the state of Rio de Janeiro , Brazil
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In collects performed in several streams and rivers in the state of Rio de Janeiro and bordering areas, chironomid larvae were found living in association with Corydalidae (Megaloptera); Perlidae (Plecoptera); Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera) and catfishes of the families Trichomicteridae and Loricariidae (pisces).
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References

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The phoretic association of Nanocladius (Nanocladius) rectinervis (Kieffer) (Diptera: Chironomidae) on Nigronia serricornis Say (Megaloptera: Corydalidae)
TLDR
Late-instar N. (N.) rectinervis appear to be host specific to N. serricornis, and Phoresy seems to provide mobility, habitat stability, and protection for the chironomid.
Commensalistic Relationships between Plecopteracoluthus downesi (Diptera: Chironomidae) and Chauliodes pectinicornis (Megaloptera: Corydalidae)
Chauliodes pectinicornis L. seems to be a preferred host of Plecoptcracoluthus downesi Steffan in the Durham, New Hampshire, area with 93.5% of the hosts collected carrying symbionts; this represents
Phoretic Relationships between Corydalus cornutus (Megaloptera:Corydalidae) and Chironomidae in Eastern Tennessee
TLDR
Nineteen Corydalus cornutus (L.) larvae collected from eastern Tennessee had 29 larval midges living phoretically in cases, which is the first record of phoresy by Polypedilum sp.
ON THE LARVAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CORYDALUS AND CHAULIODES AND ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CORYDALUS CORNUTUS
TLDR
The paper relates to the development of one of the most singular and interesting of North American insects–the largest of the Order Neuroptera, popularly called Hellgrammite, and charecterized by the jaws of the male being converted into a pair of long, curved, cylindrical and tapering prehensile organs, like the finger of a grain-cradle.
Phoresy by Plecopteracoluthus downesi on Larvae of Nigronia serricornis
The larvae, pupae, and adults of Plecopteracoluthus downesi Steffan were thoroughly described by Steffan (1965) when he reported finding this species in Quebec living phoretically on nymphs of 4
Life History and Population Energetics of the Dobson Fly, Corydalus Cornutus
TLDR
Rates of C, F, A and R, but not assimilation efficiency, were influenced by temperature and size, and metabolic constancy is adaptive and probably contributed to high ratios of P/R and P/A for individual larvae.
Biotic Index Tested for Ability to Assess Water Quality of Missouri Ozark Streams
Abstract The Biotic Index (BI), a numerical index that combines the pollution tolerance of benthic insects with estimates of community structure, effectively discriminated among differences in the
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