The Pharmacology of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: A Review

  title={The Pharmacology of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: A Review},
  author={Torsten Passie and John H. Halpern and Dirk O. Stichtenoth and Hinderk M. Emrich and Annelie K Hintzen},
  journal={CNS Neuroscience \& Therapeutics},
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) was synthesized in 1938 and its psychoactive effects discovered in 1943. It was used during the 1950s and 1960s as an experimental drug in psychiatric research for producing so‐called “experimental psychosis” by altering neurotransmitter system and in psychotherapeutic procedures (“psycholytic” and “psychedelic” therapy). From the mid 1960s, it became an illegal drug of abuse with widespread use that continues today. With the entry of new methods of research and… 

Lysergic acid diethylamide: a drug of ‘use’?

The receptor pharmacology, mechanism of action, effects and adverse effects of LSD on the normal body system are described, and its addictive potentials and the chances of developing tolerance are highlighted.

d-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) as a Model of Psychosis: Mechanism of Action and Pharmacology

The LSD-induced psychosis is a useful model to test the therapeutic efficacy of potential novel antipsychotic drugs, particularly drugs with dual serotonergic and dopaminergic (DA) mechanism or acting on TAAR1 receptors.

New psychoactive substances in Poland : An overview of psychodysleptics ( lysergamides and tryptamines )

The present paper aims at providing an overview of two groups of psychedelic drugs – lysergamides and tryptamines, and determining their legislation status in Poland.

Metabolism of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD): an update

Lysergic acid diethylamide is the most potent hallucinogen known and its pharmacological effect results from stimulation of central serotonin receptors (5-HT2) and its metabolism is discussed, by presenting all metabolites as well as clinical and toxicological relevance.

Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide on Circulating Steroid Levels in Healthy Subjects

LSD produces significant acute effects on circulating steroids, especially glucocorticoids, and its influence on plasma steroid levels over time has not yet been characterised in humans.

Editorial: Hallucinogens and Entactogens: Establishing a New Class of Psychotherapeutic Drugs?

Three articles rise the fundamental question of mechanism behind therapeutic effects of hallucinogenic and entactogenic substances, which patients might benefit from these treatments and which might not, how therapeutic effects can be promoted and risks further minimized.

Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in Healthy Subjects

The Bright Side of Psychedelics: Latest Advances and Challenges in Neuropharmacology

This review aims to summarize the ethnobotanical uses of the best-known psychedelic plants and the pharmacological mechanisms of the main active ingredients they contain and the most recent clinical studies evaluating the efficacy of psychedelic molecules in some psychiatric disorders.

From Psychiatry to Flower Power and Back Again: The Amazing Story of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide.

  • H. Mucke
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Assay and drug development technologies
  • 2016
Using today's tools of molecular pharmacology, functional imaging, and neuronal network theory, neuropsychiatry is now resurrecting LSD research-with implications that leave us with many medical and ethical questions.



Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) antagonists. III. Modification of syndrome by prior administration of prednisone.

It has been found that prednisone administered for three to seven days proir to the patient’s taking LSD either reduced or eliminated anxiety due to the drug, without diminishing other symptoms usually induced by LSD, as measured by a questionnaire previously used in this series of experiments.

Experimental physiological studies with lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25).

The results of administration of lysergic acid diethylamide to various types of subjects were confirmed and in general confirmed the findings of Stoll.

Studies on lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25). I. Effects in former morphine addicts and development of tolerance during chronic intoxication.

The striking mental changes induced by the diethylamide of lysergic acid (hereafter referred to as LSD) have been studied extensively in Europe, Great Britain and the United States and are apparently the most effective and safest agent for inducing an experimental, but reversible, psychosis in nonpsychotic subjects.

Studies on lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25). III. Attempts to attenuate the LSD-reaction in man by pretreatment with neurohumoral blocking agents.

A hypothesis which ascribes the LSD psychosis to competition between LSD and serotonin for receptor sites on or in neurons, which might be termed the serotonin-deficiency theory, is based in part on the following evidence: Serotonin is found in brain, 6.


This communication reports on results obtained with d-N-methylamphetamine hydrochloride (" methedrine ") and lysergic acid -diethylamide (L.S.D.) and their effects on psychotics.


  • R. Strassman
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The Journal of nervous and mental disease
  • 1984
The basic pharmacology of the major synthetic psychedelic compounds (primarily lysergic acid diethylamide [LSD]-25) is described and reference is made to their potentially beneficial psychological effects.

Psychopharmacological studies of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) intoxication; effects of premedication with BOL-128 (2-bromo-d-lysergic acid diethylamide), mescaline, atropine, amobarbital, and chlorpromazine.

It is found that premedication with amobarbital (Amytal) sodium and chlorpromazine did not prevent LSD-25 or mescaline intoxication but pointed out that such drugs produced suppressive effects when given at the height of the intoxication.

The chromosomal and teratogenic effects of lysergic acid diethylamide: a review of the current literature.

A RECENT review by the authors14 summarized the reported adverse effects of LSD; this was chiefly a review of psychological and psychiatrie effects. Since that article was prepared a number of

Role of 5-Hydroxytryptamine in Mental Diseases and its Antagonism to Lysergic Acid Derivatives

The hypothesis is that certain of the actions of 5-hydroxytryptamine are antagonized by lysergic acid diethylamide, a drug which on oral application and in doses of only 0.5–1.0 µgm./kgm produces pronounced psychic disturbances in normal human beings.