The Pharmacology and Clinical Outcomes of Amphetamines to Treat ADHD

  title={The Pharmacology and Clinical Outcomes of Amphetamines to Treat ADHD},
  author={Paul S. Hodgkins and Monica Shaw and Suzanne McCarthy and Floyd R. Sallee},
  journal={CNS Drugs},
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment options include pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches. [] Key Method A PubMed literature search was conducted to investigate amphetamine pharmacology, clinical efficacy and safety and ADHD outcomes in the published literature from 1980 through March 2011.
Individualization of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment: pharmacotherapy considerations by age and co-occurring conditions
This article combines current information from the literature and the first-hand experience of the authors to provide guidance on ADHD treatment options for patients of different ages and for some of the more common comorbidities.
An update on the pharmacokinetic considerations in the treatment of ADHD with long-acting methylphenidate and amphetamine formulations
Since there are no reliable biomarkers that can predict individualized response to long-acting stimulants, clinicians need to consider their distinctive pharmacokinetic properties, including the pharmacokinetics profile, rate and extent of absorption, variability, dose proportionality, bioequivalence and potential for accumulation.
Lisdexamfetamine: A Review in ADHD in Adults
Lisdexamfetamine provides a useful alternative option for the treatment of adults with ADHD, including those who have not responded adequately to previous ADHD therapies, including MPH.
Effect of Chronic DL-Amphetamine Exposure on Brain Volume, Anxiogenic, Locomotor, and Social Behaviors in Male SD Rats
While chronic drug treatment fails to alter multiple measures of behavior, or reliable changes in brain volume, such treatment may impact a behavioral index of anxiety, which was represented as a significant reduction in open arm entries in the EPM.
Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate: A Review in Paediatric ADHD
Lisdexamfetamine provides an alternative option for the treatment of children and/or adolescents with ADHD who have not responded adequately to previous ADHD pharmacotherapies.
Pharmacotherapy With Attention-Deficit Disorder.
  • B. Limandri
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of psychosocial nursing and mental health services
  • 2020
The current article addresses the definition and manifestations of attention-deficit disorder, comorbidities in children and adults, epidemiology, neurophysiology, and pharmacological treatment strategies.
Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents: A Systematic Review.
Evidence supports the use of extended- release methylphenidate and amphetamine formulations, atomoxetine, and extended-release guanfacine to improve symptoms of ADHD in adolescents and greater benefit for academic and organizational skills.
Medictation: Analysis of Attentional Control in Regards to Medication and Meditation
From the introduction] Side effects of some Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) medications (like Adderall) include rapid euphoria onset, decreased appetite, insomnia, abdomen pain, and
Expert Opinion and Recommendations for the Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Correctional Facilities
An overview of current recommendations for the identification and management of adults with ADHD in correctional settings is provided and possible strategies for their further development are discussed.


Amphetamines for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults.
The three amphetamine derivatives investigated (dextroamphetamine, lisdexamphetamine and mixed amphetamine salts) were all efficacious for reducing ADHD symptoms, but MAS also increased retention in treatment, and amphetamines improved short-term ADHD symptom severity.
Variables that affect the clinical use and abuse of methylphenidate in the treatment of ADHD.
The characteristics of clinical use (low doses administered orally and titrated for therapeutic effects) constrain methylphenidate's abuse.
Efficacy of a mixed amphetamine salts compound in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Adderall was effective and well tolerated in the short-term treatment of adults with ADHD and more work is needed to evaluate the long-term effects of Adderall, or other amphetamine compounds, in the treatment of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
A review of long-acting medications for ADHD in Canada.
  • Sheik Hosenbocus, Raj Chahal
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry = Journal de l'Academie canadienne de psychiatrie de l'enfant et de l'adolescent
  • 2009
When a child is receiving a long-acting medication for treatment of ADHD, he may feel less stigmatized, is more likely to be adherent and achieve remission, and a child in remission can benefit from other treatment modalities thus improving long-term prognosis.
Comparing Guanfacine and Dextroamphetamine for the Treatment of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
This preliminary study indicates that guanfacine may be a well-tolerated treatment option for adult ADHD and significantly reduced ADHD symptoms on the DSM-IV Adult Behavior Checklist for Adults over placebo.
Mixed Amphetamine Salts Extended-Release in the Treatment of Adult ADHD: A Randomized, Controlled Trial
MAS XR is safe and effective in adults with ADHD and controlled ADHD symptoms for up to 12 hours, suggesting a 12-hour duration of effect.
Efficacy of modafinil compared to dextroamphetamine for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.
  • F. Taylor, J. Russo
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology
  • 2000
Modafinil may be a viable alternative to conventional stimulants for the treatment of adults with ADHD and scores on the DSM-IV ADHD Checklist were significantly improved over the placebo condition following treatment with both active medications.
Long-acting medications for the hyperkinetic disorders. A systematic review and European treatment guideline.
A systematic review of published and unpublished data on the use of long-acting medications in ADHD and hyperkinetic disorder is reported, giving effect sizes and numbers-to-treat for
Placebo-controlled evaluation of amphetamine mixture-dextroamphetamine salts and amphetamine salts (Adderall): efficacy rate and side effects.
It is found that Adderall is highly efficacious in the population of youth diagnosed with ADHD and well-tolerated with a side effect profile similar to that reported for other psychostimulants.