The Pharmacology and Clinical Outcomes of Amphetamines to Treat ADHD

@article{Hodgkins2012ThePA,
  title={The Pharmacology and Clinical Outcomes of Amphetamines to Treat ADHD},
  author={Paul S. Hodgkins and Monica Shaw and Suzanne McCarthy and Floyd R. Sallee},
  journal={CNS Drugs},
  year={2012},
  volume={26},
  pages={245-268}
}
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment options include pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches. [] Key Method A PubMed literature search was conducted to investigate amphetamine pharmacology, clinical efficacy and safety and ADHD outcomes in the published literature from 1980 through March 2011.
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From the introduction] Side effects of some Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) medications (like Adderall) include rapid euphoria onset, decreased appetite, insomnia, abdomen pain, and
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TLDR
The three amphetamine derivatives investigated (dextroamphetamine, lisdexamphetamine and mixed amphetamine salts) were all efficacious for reducing ADHD symptoms, but MAS also increased retention in treatment, and amphetamines improved short-term ADHD symptom severity.
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TLDR
The characteristics of clinical use (low doses administered orally and titrated for therapeutic effects) constrain methylphenidate's abuse.
Efficacy of a mixed amphetamine salts compound in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
TLDR
Adderall was effective and well tolerated in the short-term treatment of adults with ADHD and more work is needed to evaluate the long-term effects of Adderall, or other amphetamine compounds, in the treatment of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
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TLDR
When a child is receiving a long-acting medication for treatment of ADHD, he may feel less stigmatized, is more likely to be adherent and achieve remission, and a child in remission can benefit from other treatment modalities thus improving long-term prognosis.
Comparing Guanfacine and Dextroamphetamine for the Treatment of Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
TLDR
This preliminary study indicates that guanfacine may be a well-tolerated treatment option for adult ADHD and significantly reduced ADHD symptoms on the DSM-IV Adult Behavior Checklist for Adults over placebo.
Mixed Amphetamine Salts Extended-Release in the Treatment of Adult ADHD: A Randomized, Controlled Trial
TLDR
MAS XR is safe and effective in adults with ADHD and controlled ADHD symptoms for up to 12 hours, suggesting a 12-hour duration of effect.
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Modafinil may be a viable alternative to conventional stimulants for the treatment of adults with ADHD and scores on the DSM-IV ADHD Checklist were significantly improved over the placebo condition following treatment with both active medications.
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A systematic review of published and unpublished data on the use of long-acting medications in ADHD and hyperkinetic disorder is reported, giving effect sizes and numbers-to-treat for
Placebo-controlled evaluation of amphetamine mixture-dextroamphetamine salts and amphetamine salts (Adderall): efficacy rate and side effects.
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It is found that Adderall is highly efficacious in the population of youth diagnosed with ADHD and well-tolerated with a side effect profile similar to that reported for other psychostimulants.
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