The Phaeodactylum genome reveals the evolutionary history of diatom genomes.


Diatoms are photosynthetic secondary endosymbionts found throughout marine and freshwater environments, and are believed to be responsible for around one-fifth of the primary productivity on Earth. The genome sequence of the marine centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana was recently reported, revealing a wealth of information about diatom biology. Here we report the complete genome sequence of the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and compare it with that of T. pseudonana to clarify evolutionary origins, functional significance and ubiquity of these features throughout diatoms. In spite of the fact that the pennate and centric lineages have only been diverging for 90 million years, their genome structures are dramatically different and a substantial fraction of genes ( approximately 40%) are not shared by these representatives of the two lineages. Analysis of molecular divergence compared with yeasts and metazoans reveals rapid rates of gene diversification in diatoms. Contributing factors include selective gene family expansions, differential losses and gains of genes and introns, and differential mobilization of transposable elements. Most significantly, we document the presence of hundreds of genes from bacteria. More than 300 of these gene transfers are found in both diatoms, attesting to their ancient origins, and many are likely to provide novel possibilities for metabolite management and for perception of environmental signals. These findings go a long way towards explaining the incredible diversity and success of the diatoms in contemporary oceans.

DOI: 10.1038/nature07410

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@article{Bowler2008ThePG, title={The Phaeodactylum genome reveals the evolutionary history of diatom genomes.}, author={Chris Bowler and Andrew E Allen and Jonathan H. Badger and Gerald A Tuskan and Kamel Jabbari and Alan Kuo and Uma Maheswari and C. L. J. Martens and Florian Maumus and Robert Otillar and Edda Rayko and Asaf A. Salamov and Klaas Vandepoele and B{\'a}nk Beszteri and Ansgar Gruber and Marc Heijde and Michael Katinka and Thomas Mock and Klaus Valentin and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Verret and John A. Berges and Colin Brownlee and J P Cadoret and Anthony Chiovitti and Chang Jae Choi and Sacha Nicole Coesel and Alessandra de Martino and J. Chris Detter and Colleen A. Durkin and Angela Falciatore and J{\'e}rome Fournet and Miyoshi Haruta and Marie J. J. Huysman and Bethany D. Jenkins and Kateřina Jiroutov{\'a} and Richard E Jorgensen and Yolaine Joubert and Aaron Kaplan and Nils Kr{\"{o}ger and Peter G Kroth and Julie La Roche and Erica Lindquist and Markus Lommer and V{\'e}ronique Martin-J{\'e}z{\'e}quel and Pascal Jean Lopez and Susan M. Lucas and Manuela Mangogna and Karen M McGinnis and Linda K. Medlin and Anton Montsant and Marie-Pierre Oudot-Le Secq and Carolyn Napoli and Miroslav Oborn{\'i}k and Micaela Schnitzler Parker and Jean-Louis Petit and Betina M. Porcel and Nicole Poulsen and Matthew Robison and Leszek Rychlewski and Tatiana A. Rynearson and J. Schmutz and Harris Shapiro and Magali Siaut and Michele S. Stanley and Michael R. Sussman and A. R. Taylor and Assaf Vardi and Peter von Dassow and W. Vyverman and Anusuya Willis and Lucjan Stanislaw Wyrwicz and Daniel S. Rokhsar and Jean Weissenbach and E. Virginia Armbrust and Beverley R. Green and Yves Van de Peer and Igor V. Grigoriev}, journal={Nature}, year={2008}, volume={456 7219}, pages={239-44} }