The Persistently Variable “Background” Stratospheric Aerosol Layer and Global Climate Change

@article{Solomon2011ThePV,
  title={The Persistently Variable “Background” Stratospheric Aerosol Layer and Global Climate Change},
  author={S. Solomon and John Daniel and Ryan R. Neely and J. P. Vernier and E. G. Dutton and Larry W. Thomason},
  journal={Science},
  year={2011},
  volume={333},
  pages={866 - 870}
}
An increase in the amount of aerosols in the stratosphere during the past decade has decreased the rate of global warming. Recent measurements demonstrate that the “background” stratospheric aerosol layer is persistently variable rather than constant, even in the absence of major volcanic eruptions. Several independent data sets show that stratospheric aerosols have increased in abundance since 2000. Near-global satellite aerosol data imply a negative radiative forcing due to stratospheric… 

Surface response to stratospheric aerosol changes in a coupled atmosphere–ocean model

Previous work with a simple climate model has suggested a global cooling impact of increasing stratospheric aerosol. Here we use a comprehensive Earth System Model including coupled atmosphere and

Total volcanic stratospheric aerosol optical depths and implications for global climate change

Understanding the cooling effect of recent volcanoes is of particular interest in the context of the post‐2000 slowing of the rate of global warming. Satellite observations of aerosol optical depth

Significant Contributions of Volcanic Aerosols to Decadal Changes in the Stratospheric Circulation

The stratospheric circulation is an important element of climate as it determines the concentration of radiatively active species like water vapor and aerosol above the tropopause. Climate models

Multi-model simulations of aerosol and ozone radiative forcing due to anthropogenic emission changes during the period 1990-2015

Abstract. Over the past few decades, the geographical distribution of emissions of substances that alter the atmospheric energy balance has changed due to economic growth and air pollution

Impact of aerosol radiative effects on 2000–2010 surface temperatures

Aerosol radiative forcing from direct and indirect effects of aerosols is examined over the recent past (last 10–15 years) using updated sulfate aerosol emissions in two Earth System Models with very

Climate change modulates the stratospheric volcanic sulfate aerosol lifecycle and radiative forcing from tropical eruptions

An eruptive column model with an aerosol-climate model is combined to show that the stratospheric aerosol optical depth perturbation from frequent moderate-magnitude tropical eruptions will be reduced by 75% in a high-end warming scenario compared to today, a consequence of future tropopause height rise and unchanged eruptivecolumn height.

Quantifying the impact of early 21st century volcanic eruptions on global-mean surface temperature

Despite a continuous increase in well-mixed greenhouse gases, the global-mean surface temperature has shown a quasi-stabilization since 1998. This muted warming has been linked to the combined

Volcanic forcing for climate modeling: a new microphysics-based data set covering years 1600–present

Abstract. As the understanding and representation of the impacts of volcanic eruptions on climate have improved in the last decades, uncertainties in the stratospheric aerosol forcing from large

Quantifying the impact of early 21 st century volcanic eruptions on global-mean surface temperature

Despite a continuous increase in well-mixed greenhouse gases, the global-mean surface temperature has shown a quasi-stabilization since 1998. This muted warming has been linked to the combined

Modeled and Observed Volcanic Aerosol Control on Stratospheric NOy and Cly

Decreases in stratospheric NOx associated with enhanced aerosol have been observed after large volcanic eruptions, for example, after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. While the 1991 Mount
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 29 REFERENCES

Major influence of tropical volcanic eruptions on the stratospheric aerosol layer during the last decade

The variability of stratospheric aerosol loading between 1985 and 2010 is explored with measurements from SAGE II, CALIPSO, GOMOS/ENVISAT, and OSIRIS/Odin space‐based instruments. We find that,

SAGE II measurements of stratospheric aerosol properties at non-volcanic levels

Since 2000, stratospheric aerosol levels have been relatively stable and at the lowest levels observed in the historical record. Given the challenges of making satellite measurements of aerosol

Tropical stratospheric aerosol layer from CALIPSO lidar observations

[1] The evolution of the aerosols in the tropical stratosphere since the beginning of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission in June 2006 is

Increase in the Stratospheric Background Sulfuric Acid Aerosol Mass in the Past 10 Years

  • D. Hofmann
  • Environmental Science, Geology
    Science
  • 1990
Data obtained from measurements of the stratospheric aerosol at Laramie, Wyoming (41�N), indicate that the background or nonvolcanic stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosol mass at northern mid-latitudes

Long‐term effect of volcanic forcing on ocean heat content

Explosive volcanic eruptions cause episodic negative radiative forcing of the climate system. Using coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) subjected to historical forcing since

CALIPSO detection of an Asian tropopause aerosol layer

The first four years of the CALIPSO lidar measurements have revealed the existence of an aerosol layer at the tropopause level associated with the Asian monsoon season in June, July and August. This

Climate effects of high-latitude volcanic eruptions: Role of the time of year

[1] We test how the time of year of a large Arctic volcanic eruption determines the climate impacts by conducting simulations with a general circulation model of Earth's climate. For eruptions

Particle Formation in the Upper Tropical Troposphere: A Source of Nuclei for the Stratospheric Aerosol

Atmospheric measurements and numerical calculations described here indicate that binary homogeneous nucleation of H2SO4-H2O particles occurs in the upper tropical troposphere. Particle concentrations

Optical extinction by upper tropospheric/stratospheric aerosols and clouds: GOMOS observations for the period 2002–2008

Although the retrieval of aerosol extinction coefficients from satellite remote measurements is notoriously difficult (in comparison with gaseous species) due to the lack of typical spectral

Potential climate impact of Mount Pinatubo eruption

We use the GISS global climate model to make a preliminary estimate of Mount Pinatubo's climate impact. Assuming the aerosol optical depth is nearly twice as great as for the 1982 El Chichon