The Permo–Triassic extinction

  title={The Permo–Triassic extinction},
  author={Douglas H. Erwin},
  • D. Erwin
  • Published 1994
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • Nature
The end-Permian mass extinction brought the Palaeozoic great experiment in marine life to a close during an interval of intense climatic, tectonic and geochemical change. Improved knowledge of latest Permian faunas, coupled with recent advances in isotopic studies and biostratigraphy, have greatly enhanced our understanding of the events of 250 million years ago and have begun to provide answers to many questions about the causes of extinction. 

Comparative Earth History and Late Permian Mass Extinction

The repeated association during the late Neoproterozoic Era of large carbon-isotopic excursions, continental glaciation, and stratigraphically anomalous carbonate precipitation provides a framework

Abrupt and Gradual Extinction Among Late Permian Land Vertebrates in the Karoo Basin, South Africa

The vertebrate fossil data show a gradual extinction in the Upper Permian punctuated by an enhanced extinction pulse at the Permians-Triassic boundary interval, particularly among the dicynodont therapsids, coinciding with negative carbon-isotope anomalies.

End-Permian catastrophe by a bolide impact: Evidence of a gigantic release of sulfur from the mantle

Our studies in southern China have revealed a remarkable sulfur and strontium isotope excursion at the end of the Permian, along with a coincident concentration of impact- metamorphosed grains and

RESEARCH FOCUS: Changes in productivity and oxygenation during the Permian-Triassic transition

The causes of the transition from an Early Permian cold house into an Early Triassic hothouse world have been of great interest, because this time encompasses the greatest extinction of species in

Timing of mammal-like reptile extinctions across the Permian-Triassic boundary in South Africa

The rate, timing, and pattern of change in different regions and paleoenvironments are critical for distinguishing among potential causes for the Permian-Triassic (P-T) extinction. Carbon isotopic

Enhanced flux of extraterrestrial 3He across the Permian–Triassic boundary

AbstractThe ca 252 Ma Permian–Triassic boundary (PTB) represents the most severe mass extinction event of the Phanerozoic, with the disappearance of ~ 80% of marine invertebrate species. Large-scale

Meishan sections in South China: The witness of the largest biological mass extinction during the Phanerozoic.

Spetacular Permian–Triassic sequences are exposed in a series of quarries at Meishan, Zhejiang Province in Southeast China. The Meishan sections have become the most intensively-studied sections to

Insects during the time around the Permian—Triassic crisis

Dramatic changes in ancient biotas usually interpreted as ecological crises or mass extinctions are treated in many publications of every sort, and yet our notions about such events remain

Impact Event at the Permian-Triassic Boundary: Evidence from Extraterrestrial Noble Gases in Fullerenes

Fullerenes from sediments at the PTB contain trapped helium and argon with isotope ratios similar to the planetary component of carbonaceous chondrites, implying that an impact event accompanied the extinction, as was the case for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event about 65 million years ago.

Prolonged Late Permian–Early Triassic hyperthermal: failure of climate regulation?

  • L. Kump
  • Environmental Science, Geology
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2018
The extreme warmth associated with the mass extinction at the Permian–Triassic boundary was likely produced by a rapid build-up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from the eruption and emplacement



Size of the Permo-Triassic Bottleneck and Its Evolutionary Implications

  • D. Raup
  • Environmental Science
  • 1979
Rarefaction analysis of extinctions in the Late Permian indicates that as many as 96 percent of all marine species may have died out, thus forcing the marine biosphere to pass through a small

Why was there a delayed radiation after the end‐Palaeozoic extinctions?

  • A. Hallam
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1991
Data from widespread dysaerobic facies, carbon/sulphur ratios and cerium anomalies suggest that the early Triassic was a time when anoxic conditions spread widely over epicontinental seas. These

A brachiopod calcite record of the oceanic carbon and oxygen isotope shifts at the Permian/Triassic transition

The Permian/Triassic (P/T) mass extinction was the most dramatic of all such events but its cause has thus far remained elusive1–3. Carbon and oxygen isotope analyses may offer clues to this puzzle

Conodont Survival and Low Iridium Abundances Across the Permian-Triassic Boundary in South China

A low concentration of iridium in the boundary clay (0.002 part per billion �20 percent) and in samples immediately below and above, do not support the proposal of an extraterrestrial impact event at this boundary in China.

Phanerozoic Overview of Mass Extinction

Mass extinctions are episodes of accelerated extinction of variable magnitude that affect widespread taxa and cause at least temporary declines in their diversity. Although such episodes are often

Synchronism of the Siberian Traps and the Permian-Triassic Boundary

The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the P-Tr extinction was caused by the Siberian basaltic flood volcanism and may have been caused by a combination of acid rain and global cooling as well as rapid and extreme changes in sea level resulting from expansion of the polar ice cap.

The end of the ice age

  • E. Nisbet
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1990
Methane-gas hydrates may have contributed to the rapid rise in atmospheric CH4, CO2, and global temperatures at the end of the last major glaciation about 13 500 years ago. Given suitable orbital

Uppermost permian reefs and permo-triassic sedimentary facies from the southeastern margin of Sichuan Basin, China

SummaryA large-scale, gradual transition from an epicontinental marine regime, prevailing during most of the Paleozoic, to continental (?molasse) red beds of Upper Triassic and younger age is