# The Penna Model of Biological Aging

@article{Stauffer2009ThePM, title={The Penna Model of Biological Aging}, author={Dietrich Stauffer}, journal={Bioinformatics and Biology Insights}, year={2009}, volume={1}, pages={91 - 100} }

This review deals with computer simulation of biological aging, particularly with the Penna model of 1995. They are based on the mutation accumulation theory of half a century ago. The results agree well with demographical reality, and also with the seemingly contradictory influence of predators on the aging of prey.

## 20 Citations

ANOMALOUS RELAXATION OF THE PENNA MODEL

- Mathematics
- 2008

We simulate the response of an age-structured population face to an abrupt increasing of fertility. Contrary to the exponential decay of original model, as reported by Coe and Mao, we have found that…

Mortality curves using a bit-string aging model

- Mathematics
- 2020

Abstract In this work, we studied the shape of mortality curves for a population under different conditions using a bit-string model for biological aging. More specifically, we studied how the model…

Computer Simulation of Host and two Parasite Species with Ageing

- Biology
- 2007

If the aggressive parasites survive the difficult initial times where they have to adjust genetically to the proper host age, all three species may survive, though the host number may be diminished by increasing parasite aggressivity.

COMPUTER SIMULATION OF HOST AND SEVERAL PARASITE SPECIES WITH AGEING

- 2008

– The possible coexistence of one host, one aggressive parasite and one non-lethal parasite is simulated using the Penna model of biological ageing. If the aggressive parasites survive the difficult…

Evolution of the rate of biological aging using a phenotype based computational model.

- Biology, MedicineJournal of theoretical biology
- 2010

A simple model to study how natural selection acts upon aging, which focuses on the viability of each individual, is introduced, able to reproduce the Gompertz law of mortality and make predictions about the relation between the level of mutation rates, age at reproductive maturity and the degree of biological aging.

Mortality: A physics perspective

- 2020

Abstract One of the many interests of the late Dietrich Stauffer was the modelling of mortality. Here we review the features of mortality data for various biological species. Age specific mortality…

The Accumulation Theory of Ageing

- Biology
- 2011

This work shows how Gompertz-Makeham behaviour arises when ageing factor accumulation follows a deterministic self-reinforcing process and demonstrates that such a determable process is a good approximation of the underlying stochastic accumulation of ageing factors where the Stochastic model can also account for old-age levelling off of mortality rate.

The Accumulation Theory of Ageing

- Biology, Physics
- 2011

This work shows how Gompertz-Makeham behaviour arises when ageing factor accumulation follows a deterministic self-reinforcing process and demonstrates that such a determable process is a good approximation of the underlying stochastic accumulation of ageing factors where the Stochastic model can also account for old-age levelling off of mortality rate.

Mutation Accumulation May Be a Minor Force in Shaping Life History Traits

- Biology, MedicinePloS one
- 2012

It is found that mutations accumulate only at ages with negligible impact on fitness and that mutation accumulation has very little effect on the optimal age at maturity, suggesting that life histories are largely determined by adaptive processes.

Dynamic-fuzzy simulation model for reproduction of mortality curves

- Computer ScienceProceedings of the 2009 Winter Simulation Conference (WSC)
- 2009

This paper presents the study and expansion of a dynamic simulation model for aging and death (Hargrove 1998), which contemplates the representation of physiological capacity and the generation of…

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 60 REFERENCES

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It is shown that if the computer model of biological aging proposed by Stauffer is modified such that the late reproduction is privileged, then the Gompertz law of exponential increase of mortality…

A bit-string model for biological aging

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A simple model for biological aging is presented through computer simulations and it is finted to reflect some features of real populations to reflect the changes in real populations.

Virginia Opossums, Minimum Reproduction Age and Predators in the Penna Aging Model

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It is shown that populations with a variable minimum reproduction age find a stable state with an earlier onset of reproduction, if older ages are eaten by the predators.

Solvable senescence model showing a mortality plateau.

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It is suggested that factors causing variable mortality within genetically identical subpopulations, which include environmental effects, may be essential to understanding the mortality plateau seen in many real species.

MICROSCOPIC MODELING THE DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES

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We have adapted the Penna ageing model to simulate the profound changes in the age structures of populations caused by the better life style, medical care and decrease in birth rate. In Poland, after…

Why do Women Live Longer than Men? A Monte Carlo Simulation of Penna-type Models with X and Y Chromosomes

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This work presents a simple simulation of the differences in male and female mortality and ageing. The simulation is based on Penna's bit-string model of biological ageing.

Random deaths in a computational model for age-structured populations

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It is claimed that the concept of random deaths in a computational model for population dynamics is just an artifact, albeit useful, of computational models to limit the size of the populations through the use of the socalled Verhulst factor and has no biological foundation.

Justification of sexual reproduction by modified Penna model of ageing

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- 2001

This work generalizes the standard Penna bit-string model of biological ageing and finds strong advantages or disadvantages of sexual reproduction compared to asexual cloning, depending on parameters.

Strategies for reproduction and ageing

- Biology
- 2010

Results obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of the Penna model dealing with the influence of environmental conditions in the reproductive regimes and its consequences on the population ageing are presented: longevity and catastrophic senescence.

Scaling Effects in the Penna Ageing Model

- Biology, Computer ScienceAdv. Complex Syst.
- 2005

After rescaling the time scale according to the mutational clock, age distributions of populations do not depend on the genome size, Nevertheless, enlarging the genome increases the reproduction potential of populations.