The Penetration of Solar Radiation Into Water and Carbon Dioxide Snow, With Reference to Mars

@article{Chinnery2019ThePO,
  title={The Penetration of Solar Radiation Into Water and Carbon Dioxide Snow, With Reference to Mars},
  author={H. E. Chinnery and Axel Hagermann and E. Kaufmann and Stephen R. Lewis},
  journal={Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets},
  year={2019},
  volume={124},
  pages={337 - 348}
}
The depth to which solar radiation can penetrate through ice is an important factor in understanding surface‐atmosphere interactions for icy planetary surfaces. Mars hosts both water and carbon dioxide ice on the surface and in the subsurface. At high latitudes during autumn and winter carbon dioxide condenses to form the seasonal polar cap. This has been both modeled and observed to, in part, occur as snowfall. As snow accumulates, the thermal properties of the surface are changed, whether the… 
The Penetration of Solar Radiation Into Granular Carbon Dioxide and Water Ices of Varying Grain Sizes on Mars
The penetration depth of broad spectrum solar irradiation over the wavelength range 300–1,100 nm has been experimentally measured for water and carbon dioxide ices of different grain size ranges.
Growth of carbon dioxide whiskers
We report the growth of carbon dioxide (CO2) whiskers at low temperatures (−70 °C to −65 °C) and moderate pressure (4.4 to 1.0 bar). Their axial growth was assessed by optical video analysis. The

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