The Pelvis and Femur of Ardipithecus ramidus: The Emergence of Upright Walking

@article{Lovejoy2009ThePA,
  title={The Pelvis and Femur of Ardipithecus ramidus: The Emergence of Upright Walking},
  author={C. Owen Lovejoy and Gen Suwa and Linda B. Spurlock and Berhane Abrha Asfaw and Tim D. White},
  journal={Science},
  year={2009},
  volume={326},
  pages={71 - 71e6}
}
The femur and pelvis of Ardipithecus ramidus have characters indicative of both upright bipedal walking and movement in trees. Consequently, bipedality in Ar. ramidus was more primitive than in later Australopithecus. Compared with monkeys and Early Miocene apes such as Proconsul, the ilium in Ar. ramidus is mediolaterally expanded, and its sacroiliac joint is located more posteriorly. These changes are shared with some Middle and Late Miocene apes as well as with African apes and later… 

Careful Climbing in the Miocene: The Forelimbs of Ardipithecus ramidus and Humans Are Primitive

The Ardipithecus ramidus hand and wrist exhibit none of the derived mechanisms that restrict motion in extant great apes and are reminiscent of those of Miocene apes, such as Proconsul. The capitate

Combining Prehension and Propulsion: The Foot of Ardipithecus ramidus

TLDR
The last common ancestor of hominids and chimpanzees was therefore a careful climber that retained adaptations to above-branch plantigrady and would thus have been unique among known primates.

Three-dimensional kinematics and the origin of the hominin walking stride

TLDR
The results suggest that if Pan and Homo diverged from a common ancestor whose lower back and ilia were either ‘African ape-like’ or more ‘Old World monkey- like’, at its origin, the hominin walking stride likely involved distinct pelvis motion on flexed, abducted hind limbs.

First steps of bipedality in hominids: evidence from the atelid and proconsulid pelvis

TLDR
The alae in the tailless proconsul Ekembo nyanzae appear to have been quite broad, a character state that may have been primitive in Miocene hominoids not yet adapted to suspension and, by extension, exaptive for earliest bipedality in the hominid/panid last common ancestor.

Human-like hip joint loading in Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus.

Three-dimensional kinematics of the pelvis and hind limbs in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and human bipedal walking.

Ardipithecus ramidus and the evolution of the human cranial base

TLDR
Investigation of the basicranial morphology of Ardipithecus ramidus shows that it shares with Australopithecus and Homo a relatively short, broad central cranial base and related modifications of the tympanic, petrous, and basioccipital elements, which support the proposed relationship of Ar.

The morphology and evolutionary history of the glenohumeral joint of hominoids: A review

TLDR
Current understanding of glenohumeral joint functional morphology and its evolution throughout the Miocene and Pleistocene are reviewed, as well as highlighting the areas where a deeper study of this joint is still needed.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 37 REFERENCES

Careful Climbing in the Miocene: The Forelimbs of Ardipithecus ramidus and Humans Are Primitive

The Ardipithecus ramidus hand and wrist exhibit none of the derived mechanisms that restrict motion in extant great apes and are reminiscent of those of Miocene apes, such as Proconsul. The capitate

Combining Prehension and Propulsion: The Foot of Ardipithecus ramidus

TLDR
The last common ancestor of hominids and chimpanzees was therefore a careful climber that retained adaptations to above-branch plantigrady and would thus have been unique among known primates.

Torso morphology and locomotion in Proconsul nyanzae.

  • C. Ward
  • Biology
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 1993
TLDR
Axial and pelvic morphology of KNM-MW 13142 indicate that P. nyanzae had not undergone an ape-like rearrangement of its torso to adapt to forelimb-dominated arboreality, and indicates that the extant hominoid pattern of torso anatomy arose subsequent to the establishment of the hominid clade.

The lorisiform wrist joint and the evolution of "brachiating" adaptations in the hominoidea.

TLDR
Since hominoid-like features of the wrist joint are found in lorisines, but not in New World monkeys that practice arm-swinging locomotion, these features may have been evolved in both lorisine and large hominoids to enhance wrist mobility for cautious arboreal locomotion involving little or no leaping.

Ardipithecus ramidus and the Paleobiology of Early Hominids

TLDR
Ardipithecus ramidus indicates that despite the genetic similarities of living humans and chimpanzees, the ancestor the authors last shared probably differed substantially from any extant African ape.

The locomotor anatomy of Australopithecus afarensis.

TLDR
It is demonstrated that A. afarensis possessed anatomic characteristics that indicate a significant adaptation for movement in the trees, and it is speculated that earlier representatives of the A.Afarensis lineage will present not a combination of arboreal and bipedal traits, but rather the anatomy of a generalized ape.

The Maka femur and its bearing on the antiquity of human walking: applying contemporary concepts of morphogenesis to the human fossil record.

TLDR
The specimen indicates that the hip joint of A. afarensis was remarkably like that of modern humans, and that the dramatic muscle allocation shifts which distinguish living humans and African apes were already present in a highly derived form in this species.

The Great Divides: Ardipithecus ramidus Reveals the Postcrania of Our Last Common Ancestors with African Apes

TLDR
Evidence from Ardipithecus ramidus now suggests that the last common ancestor lacked the hand, foot, pelvic, vertebral, and limb structures and proportions specialized for suspension, vertical climbing, and knuckle-walking among extant African apes.

Origine(s) de la bipédie chez les hominidés

TLDR
Origine is tangible evidence that paleoanthropological opinion on A. afarensis has ripened and now presents a majority opinion that australopithecines were committed, but rather inefficient, bipeds that also retained a substantial capacity to engage in ape-like climbing and suspension.