The Parasocial Contact Hypothesis

  title={The Parasocial Contact Hypothesis},
  author={Edward Schiappa and Peter B Gregg and Dean E. Hewes},
  journal={Communication Monographs},
  pages={115 - 92}
We propose a communication analogue to Allport's (1954) Contact Hypothesis called the Parasocial Contact Hypothesis (PCH). If people process mass-mediated parasocial interaction in a manner similar to interpersonal interaction, then the socially beneficial functions of intergroup contact may result from parasocial contact. We describe and test the PCH with respect to majority group members' level of prejudice in three studies, two involving parasocial contact with gay men (Six Feet Under and… 

Parasocial Contact's Effects on Relations Between Minority Groups in a Multiracial Context

We introduce and examine the effects of parasocial contact between out-groups—or contact that occurs when someone observes a media portrayal of contact between members of two out-groups. Our study

Contact Theory: Extended and Parasocial

Based on Gordon Allport's contact theory, several bodies of research have emerged to suggest that prejudice reduction can be achieved through indirect forms of cross-group contact, including

Parasocial Interaction as More Than Friendship

This study supports the refinement of the concept of parasocial interaction (PSI) to apply to mediated personae that viewers might dislike by revealing that participants did experience PSI with disliked characters as well as liked characters, and that the two measures of PSI did not appear to assess the same construct.

The Development and Influence of Parasocial Relationships With Television Characters: A Longitudinal Experimental Test of Prejudice Reduction Through Parasocial Contact

The current study investigates parasocial relationships as the underlying mechanism explaining prejudice reduction following extended exposure to mediated outgroups. Heterosexual participants viewed

Theorizing Prejudice Reduction via Mediated Intergroup Contact: Extending the Intergroup Contact Theory to Media Contexts

Abstract. The current paper describes an effort to develop an integrated theory – integrated mediated intergroup contact (IMIC) model – to account for the two types of mediated intergroup contact

Intergroup Contact: An Integration of Social Psychological and Communication Perspectives

This chapter examines the literature on intergroup contact from a communication perspective. The basic idea of intergroup contact theory—that contact between groups reduces prejudice—is presented.

Parasocial and parasocial vicarious contact effects on euro Canadians’ views of aboriginal peoples

Research on indirect contact suggests that actual contact with a group may not be necessary to promote positive intergroup attitudes. The ingroup, or group with which one identifies, may have more

Meta-Analysis on Mediated Contact and Prejudice

This paper presents a meta-analysis of 79 cases (N = 21,857) testing the effectiveness of mediated intergroup contact on prejudice. Positive mediated contact decreased (r = −.23; 95% CI, −.29 to

Intergroup Contact

Intergroup contact is defined as interactions between members of different social groups. Contact is essentially a communicative process. Empirical evidence suggests that positive intergroup contact



Can One TV Show Make a Difference?a Will & Grace and the Parasocial Contact Hypothesis

Examination of the relationships among number and intimacy of gay social contacts, parasocial interaction, viewing frequency of Will & Grace, and scores on Herek's Attitudes Toward Gay Men and Lesbians scale found increased viewing frequency and parasocial contact were found to correlate with lower levels of sexual prejudice.

Attribution in Social and Parasocial Relationships

This study examined social and parasocial interaction from interpersonal attribution perspectives. Parasocial interaction is a perceived interpersonal relationship on the part of a television viewer

Generalized Intergroup Contact Effects on Prejudice

The intergroup contact hypothesis is tested with self-reports of 3,806 survey respondents in seven 1988 national probability samples of France, Great Britain, the Netherlands, and West Germany. With

Development of parasocial interaction relationships

The parasocial interaction relationship development process was explored by applying principles of uncertainty reduction theory. Results suggested that parasocial relationship development follows a

Intergroup Contact: The Past, Present, and the Future

The Contact Hypothesis has long been considered one of psychology’s most effective strategies for improving intergroup relations. In this article, we review the history of the development of the

Beyond "homophobia": a social psychological perspective on attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.

  • G. Herek
  • Psychology
    Journal of homosexuality
  • 1984
It is argued that a more complex view is needed of the psychology of positive and negative attitudes toward homosexual persons, and a model is proposed that distinguishes three types of attitudes according to the social psychological function they serve.

Parasocial Interaction: A Review of the Literature and a Model for Future Research

This paper considers the phenomenon of parasocial interaction (PSI) used by media researchers to describe the relationship between media users and media figures (from celebrities to fictional

Intergroup contact theory.

The chapter proposes four processes: learning about the outgroup, changed behavior, affective ties, and ingroup reappraisal, and distinguishes between essential and facilitating factors, and emphasizes different outcomes for different stages of contact.

Development and validation of a parasocial interaction measure: The audience‐persona interaction scale

This research attempted to develop a multidimensional measure of parasocial interaction. A 47‐item questionnaire derived from qualitative responses was submitted to principal components analysis ‐

"Some of My Best Friends" Intergroup Contact, Concealable Stigma, and Heterosexuals' Attitudes Toward Gay Men and Lesbians

In a two-wave national telephone survey, a probability sample of English-speaking adults indicated their attitudes toward gay men at Wave 1 (1990-91; n = 538) and toward both gay men and lesbians