The Parasocial Contact Hypothesis

  title={The Parasocial Contact Hypothesis},
  author={Edward Schiappa and Peter B Gregg and Dean E. Hewes},
  journal={Communication Monographs},
  pages={115 - 92}
We propose a communication analogue to Allport's (1954) Contact Hypothesis called the Parasocial Contact Hypothesis (PCH). If people process mass-mediated parasocial interaction in a manner similar to interpersonal interaction, then the socially beneficial functions of intergroup contact may result from parasocial contact. We describe and test the PCH with respect to majority group members' level of prejudice in three studies, two involving parasocial contact with gay men (Six Feet Under and… Expand
Parasocial Contact's Effects on Relations Between Minority Groups in a Multiracial Context
We introduce and examine the effects of parasocial contact between out-groups—or contact that occurs when someone observes a media portrayal of contact between members of two out-groups. Our studyExpand
Contact Theory: Extended and Parasocial
Based on Gordon Allport's contact theory, several bodies of research have emerged to suggest that prejudice reduction can be achieved through indirect forms of cross-group contact, includingExpand
Parasocial Interaction as More Than Friendship
This study supports the refinement of the concept of parasocial interaction (PSI) to apply to mediated personae that viewers might dislike by revealing that participants did experience PSI with disliked characters as well as liked characters, and that the two measures of PSI did not appear to assess the same construct. Expand
The Development and Influence of Parasocial Relationships With Television Characters: A Longitudinal Experimental Test of Prejudice Reduction Through Parasocial Contact
The current study investigates parasocial relationships as the underlying mechanism explaining prejudice reduction following extended exposure to mediated outgroups. Heterosexual participants viewedExpand
Intergroup Contact: An Integration of Social Psychological and Communication Perspectives
This chapter examines the literature on intergroup contact from a communication perspective. The basic idea of intergroup contact theory—that contact between groups reduces prejudice—is presented.Expand
Parasocial and parasocial vicarious contact effects on euro Canadians’ views of aboriginal peoples
Research on indirect contact suggests that actual contact with a group may not be necessary to promote positive intergroup attitudes. The ingroup, or group with which one identifies, may have moreExpand
Meta-Analysis on Mediated Contact and Prejudice
This paper presents a meta-analysis of 79 cases (N = 21,857) testing the effectiveness of mediated intergroup contact on prejudice. Positive mediated contact decreased (r = −.23; 95% CI, −.29 toExpand
Digital destigmatization: How exposure to networking profiles can reduce social stereotypes
This study investigates the effects of passive intergroup contact via social networking services for three distinct stigmatized groups (people with physical disabilities, schizophrenia, and transgender individuals) and indicates a small improvement of outgroup-related attitudes after inter group contact. Expand
Attitudes toward Muslims: a test of the parasocial contact hypothesis and contact theory
Abstract The present research relied on intergroup theory to explain attitudes toward Muslim Americans. In particular, the parasocial contact hypothesis was relied on to develop a set of hypothesesExpand
Assessing Parasocial Interactions and Relationships in Real Time
Parasocial interaction and parasocial relationships refer to the connections people form with media characters, particularly through watching television. Transportation is a term used to explainExpand


Can One TV Show Make a Difference?a Will & Grace and the Parasocial Contact Hypothesis
Examination of the relationships among number and intimacy of gay social contacts, parasocial interaction, viewing frequency of Will & Grace, and scores on Herek's Attitudes Toward Gay Men and Lesbians scale found increased viewing frequency and parasocial contact were found to correlate with lower levels of sexual prejudice. Expand
Attribution in Social and Parasocial Relationships
This study examined social and parasocial interaction from interpersonal attribution perspectives. Parasocial interaction is a perceived interpersonal relationship on the part of a television viewerExpand
Generalized Intergroup Contact Effects on Prejudice
The intergroup contact hypothesis is tested with self-reports of 3,806 survey respondents in seven 1988 national probability samples of France, Great Britain, the Netherlands, and West Germany. WithExpand
Development of parasocial interaction relationships
The parasocial interaction relationship development process was explored by applying principles of uncertainty reduction theory. Results suggested that parasocial relationship development follows aExpand
Intergroup Contact: The Past, Present, and the Future
The Contact Hypothesis has long been considered one of psychology’s most effective strategies for improving intergroup relations. In this article, we review the history of the development of theExpand
Beyond "homophobia": a social psychological perspective on attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.
  • G. Herek
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of homosexuality
  • 1984
It is argued that a more complex view is needed of the psychology of positive and negative attitudes toward homosexual persons, and a model is proposed that distinguishes three types of attitudes according to the social psychological function they serve. Expand
Parasocial Interaction: A Review of the Literature and a Model for Future Research
This paper considers the phenomenon of parasocial interaction (PSI) used by media researchers to describe the relationship between media users and media figures (from celebrities to fictionalExpand
Intergroup contact theory.
  • T. Pettigrew
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Annual review of psychology
  • 1998
The chapter proposes four processes: learning about the outgroup, changed behavior, affective ties, and ingroup reappraisal, and distinguishes between essential and facilitating factors, and emphasizes different outcomes for different stages of contact. Expand
Development and validation of a parasocial interaction measure: The audience‐persona interaction scale
This research attempted to develop a multidimensional measure of parasocial interaction. A 47‐item questionnaire derived from qualitative responses was submitted to principal components analysis ‐Expand
"Some of My Best Friends" Intergroup Contact, Concealable Stigma, and Heterosexuals' Attitudes Toward Gay Men and Lesbians
In a two-wave national telephone survey, a probability sample of English-speaking adults indicated their attitudes toward gay men at Wave 1 (1990-91; n = 538) and toward both gay men and lesbiansExpand