The Palm Island mystery disease 20 years on: A review of research on the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin

  title={The Palm Island mystery disease 20 years on: A review of research on the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin},
  author={Dilwyn J. Griffiths and Martin L. Saker},
  journal={Environmental Toxicology},
Poisoning of humans resulting from consumption of water affected by the toxic cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii was first reported almost 20 years ago from Palm Island, northern Queensland, Australia. Since that time a great deal has been learned about this organism and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), the toxin it produces. This article reviews the information now available to us. It summarizes aspects of the chemistry of the toxin—now known to be produced by some cyanobacterial species… 

A review on cylindrospermopsin: the global occurrence, detection, toxicity and degradation of a potent cyanotoxin.

This review presents an overview of the importance of cylindrospermopsin, its detection, toxicity, worldwide distribution, and lastly, its chemical and biological degradation and removal by natural processes and drinking water treatment processes.

Cyanobacterial (blue‐green algal) toxins in water supplies: Cylindrospermopsins

Research into toxin measurement techniques and water treatment methods has indicated that effective control measures may be practicable for this toxin in drinking water, and a Guideline Value for safe water supply of 1 μg/L has been proposed.

Accumulation and depuration of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin in the freshwater mussel Anodonta cygnea.

Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, a toxic invasive cyanobacterium in South African fresh waters

The primary aim of this paper is to act as a report on the presence of C. raciborskii in the lower Orange River and as a warning of its potential to form blooms in other South African freshwaters.

The occurrence of toxic cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and its toxin cylindrospermopsin in the Huong River, Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam

The results have confirmed the presence of toxic cyanobacteria C. raciborskii in the Huong River and the relationship between species with environmental factors to find a scientific basis for predicting the risk of pollution of the species and CYN in waters.

Elucidating the factors influencing the biodegradation of cylindrospermopsin in drinking water sources

The results from this study indicate that the biodegradation of CYN in natural water bodies is a complex process that can be influenced by many environmental factors, some of which include CYN concentration, temperature, and the presence of copper‐based algicides.

First Report of Cylindrospermopsin Production by Two Cyanobacteria (Dolichospermum mendotae and Chrysosporum ovalisporum) in Lake Iznik, Turkey

This is the first report of CYN found in D. mendotae bloom, and both species were the only cyanobacteria actively growing and CYN production was attributed solely to these species.



Identification of genes implicated in toxin production in the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii

Examination of the strain‐specific distribution of the PKS and PS genes in C. raciborskii isolates demonstrated a direct link between the presence of these two genes and the ability to produce cylindrospermopsin, suggesting a likely role for these determinants in secondary metabolite and toxin production by C. raceskii.

Cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii as a probable cause of death in cattle in northern Queensland.

The death of three cows and ten calves due to suspected poisoning by cyanobacterium C raciborskii on a property in the McKinley Shire of northern Queensland is reported.

Isolation and toxicity of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii from an ornamental lake.

Occurrence of blooms of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska) Seenayya and Subba Raju in a north Queensland domestic water supply

This paper describes seasonally recurring blooms of the potentially toxic cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in relation to some limnological characteristics of Lake Julius, a large

Isolation of cylindrospermopsin from a cyanobacterium Umezakia natans and its screening method.

Cattle mortality attributed to the toxic cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in an outback region of North Queensland

Histological examination of the liver of a calf carcass showed signs consistent with poisoning caused by hepatotoxin, and this appears to be the first report of animal poisonings attributed to the cyanobacterium C. raciborskii.

Blooms of the cylindrospermopsin containing cyanobacterium, Aphanizomenon ovalisporum (Forti), in newly constructed lakes, Queensland, Australia

The cyanobacterium, Aphanizomenon ovalisporum (Forti) is reported herein for the first time in Australia. Its distribution appears to be restricted to an isolated subtropical region which has


A mouse bioassay did not show lethal toxicity when tested at doses up to 1500 mg dry weight cells·kg−1 body weight within 96 h, demonstrating that production of primarily deoxy‐CYN does not lead to significant mouse toxicity by strain HB1, and suggests that Raphidiopsis belongs to the Nostocaceae, but this requires confirmation by molecular systematic studies.


The active compound was found to be the sulfate‐guanidinium zwitterion, cylindrospermopsin, previously isolated from the cyanobacterium CylINDrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska) and recently also reported in Umezakia natans.

Management of toxic blue–green algae (cyanobacteria) in Australia

Management strategies for water supplies should include measures in the catchments, source waters, and the distribution systems to determine the need for control measures and to determine their effectiveness.