The PHQ-9: A new depression diagnostic and severity measure

  title={The PHQ-9: A new depression diagnostic and severity measure},
  author={Kurt Kroenke and Robert L. Spitzer},
  journal={Psychiatric Annals},
and treatable mental disorders presenting in general medical as well as specialty settings. There are a number of case-finding instruments for detecting depression in primary care, ranging from 2 to 28 items.1,2 Typically these can be scored as continuous measures of depression severity and also have established cutpoints above which the probability of major depression is substantially increased. Scores on these various measures tend to be highly correlated3, with little evidence that one… 

The Use of the PHQ9 self-rating scale to assess depression within Primary Care.

The PHQ-9 is effective in screening patients for depression as well as monitoring progress in a variety of situations, and is a cost-effective, efficient method of screening patients in primary care.

Validation of the PHQ-9 in a psychiatric sample.

PHQ-8 Days: a measurement option for DSM-5 Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) severity

The days version of the PHZ-8 may be a valuable dimensional alternative to the traditional PHQ-8 by offering finer granularity of dimensionality (a score of 0 to 112).

Instructions for Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and GAD-7 Measures

  • Medicine, Psychology
  • 2010
The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) was an instrument developed and validated in the early 1990s to efficiently diagnose five of the most common types of mental disorders presenting in medical populations but proved to be a barrier to use given the competing demands in busy clinical practice settings.

Identifying depression with the PHQ-2: A diagnostic meta-analysis.

Assessing Depression Related Severity and Functional Impairment: The Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS)

This study supports the reliability and validity of ODSIS in a non-western population, which can be interpreted as demonstrating cross-cultural validity.

Managing Depression in Primary Care

This chapter will focus on aspects of managing care of depression in primary care settings necessary, with up to 50% of depressed patients going unrecognized.

Dimensionality and the category of major depressive episode

The surprise is that trained clinicians can do this reliably and that diagnostic interviews and questionnaires can emulate this process.



The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure.

In addition to making criteria-based diagnoses of depressive disorders, the PHQ-9 is also a reliable and valid measure of depression severity, which makes it a useful clinical and research tool.

A New Depression Scale Designed to be Sensitive to Change

The construction of a depression rating scale designed to be particularly sensitive to treatment effects is described, and its capacity to differentiate between responders and non-responders to antidepressant treatment was better than the HRS, indicating greater sensitivity to change.

An inventory for measuring depression.

The difficulties inherent in obtaining consistent and adequate diagnoses for the purposes of research and therapy have been pointed out and a wide variety of psychiatric rating scales have been developed.

Case-Finding Instruments for Depression in Primary Care Settings

The feasibility and operating characteristics of several case-finding instruments that have been used to detect depressive disorders in primary care settings are assessed to familiarize providers with the advantages and disadvantages of these instruments so that they can make informed decisions about incorporating them into practice.

Case-finding instruments for depression. Two questions are as good as many.

The two-question case-finding instrument is a useful measure for detecting depression in primary care and has similar test characteristics to other case- finding instruments and is less time-consuming.

Discovering Depression in Medical Patients: Reasonable Expectations

  • K. Kroenke
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Annals of Internal Medicine
  • 1997
In this issue, Covinsky and colleagues report the results of a prospective cohort study of 572 hospitalized medical patients older than 70 years of age, finding that patients' overall condition was more likely to deteriorate and less likely to improve during hospitalization and after discharge.

Is this patient clinically depressed?

Multiple, practical questionnaires with reasonable performance characteristics are available to help clinicians identify and diagnose patients with major depression and can be made with high reliability.

Performance of a Five-Item Mental Health Screening Test

TheMHI-5 was as good as the MHI-18 and the GHQ-30, and better than the SSI-28, for detecting most significant DIS disorders, including major depression, affective disorders generally, and anxiety disorders.

The Montgomery‐Åsberg Depression Scale: reliability and validity

The Montgomery‐Åsberg Depression Scale was evaluated in 44 depressed inpatients; the scale exhibited construct validity (internal homogeneity) and concurrent validity relative to the Hamilton Depression Scale and the concepts of endogenous and nonendogenous depression.

Utility of a new procedure for diagnosing mental disorders in primary care. The PRIME-MD 1000 study.

Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders appears to be a useful tool for identifying mental disorders in primary care practice and research.