The PETTLEP Approach to Motor Imagery: A Functional Equivalence Model for Sport Psychologists

  title={The PETTLEP Approach to Motor Imagery: A Functional Equivalence Model for Sport Psychologists},
  author={Paul S. Holmes and David John Collins},
  journal={Journal of Applied Sport Psychology},
  pages={60 - 83}
Abstract This paper supports the contention that the brain stores memories in the form of a central representation that is accessed by both physical preparation and execution and, more importantly, by motor imagery associated with this preparation and execution. Considerable evidence in support of shared central and vegetative structures suggests that sport psychologists should consider more closely aspects of the performer's responses to the physical skill when providing imagery interventions… 
Construction of the Motor Imagery Integrative Model in Sport: a review and theoretical investigation of motor imagery use
While there is ample evidence that motor imagery (MI) may improve motor performance, the models that have been proposed are mainly focused on some of the key components required to ascertain
A PETTLEP Imagery Intervention with Young Athletes
Abstract The PETTLEP model of imagery (Holmes & Collins, 2001) was designed to produce more effective imagery. The PETTLEP acronym represents seven key elements (i.e., Physical, Environment, Task,
Functional equivalence or behavioural matching? A critical reflection on 15 years of research using the PETTLEP model of motor imagery
It is important to provide a contemporary critical reflection on motor imagery research conducted using the PETTLEP model, and to offer suggestions for, and new directions in, research in this field.
Re-imagining motor imagery: building bridges between cognitive neuroscience and sport psychology.
Current research on motor imagery is hampered by a variety of semantic, conceptual, and methodological issues that prevent cross-fertilization of ideas between cognitive neuroscience and sport psychology, and some potentially fruitful new directions are sketched.
  • Psychology
  • 2007
Holmes and Collins (2001) developed the PETTLEP model to help practitioners produce functionally equivalent imagery. PETTLEP is an acronym, each letter representing a key issue to consider when
The neural basis of kinesthetic and visual imagery in sports: an ALE meta − analysis
It was concluded that visual and kinesthetic imagery share similar neural networks which suggests that combined interventions are beneficial to athletes whereas separate use of those two modalities of imagery may seem less efficient from a neuropsychological approach.
University of Birmingham A PETTLEP Imagery Intervention with Young Athletes
The PETTLEP model of imagery (Holmes & Collins, 2001) was designed to produce more effective imagery. The PETTLEP acronym represents seven key elements (i.e., Physical, Environment, Task, Timing,
Optimal timing of a PETTLEP mental imagery intervention on a dart throwing task
Research supports the use of mental imagery (MI) to increase performance on subsequent motor tasks. Elite athletes, coaches, and sport psychologists agree that MI is effective in positively


Use of different imagery perspectives on the learning and performance of different motor skills.
In the gymnastics task, contrary to previous suggestions, external visual imagery was found to be more effective than internal visual imagery for both learning and subsequent retention.
The Effects of Mental Practice on Motor Skill Performance: Critical Evaluation and Meta-Analysis
Empirical research suggests that mental practice may enhance the performance of motor skills. Many variables have been shown to mediate the size and direction of the mental practice effects. The
Effects of Visuo-motor Behavior Rehearsal, Relaxation, and Imagery on Karate Performance
The present investigation attempted to determine whether imagery combined with relaxation (VMBR) is more effective in facilitating karate performance than either imagery or relaxation alone. Each
Consciousness, mental imagery and action
This article is founded on the bold claim that mental imagery is a basic building block of all consciousness. Conscious mental imagery is reported in association with waking, dreaming and
Imagery interventions in sport.
  • S. Murphy
  • Psychology
    Medicine and science in sports and exercise
  • 1994
The conclusion is reached that mental practice research has produced equivocal results and the reasons for this are examined.
The effects of mental practice on motor skill learning and performance: A meta-analysis.
A longstanding research question in the sport psychology literature has been whether a given amount of mental practice prior to performing a motor skill will enhance one's subsequent performance. The
The representing brain: Neural correlates of motor intention and imagery
  • M. Jeannerod
  • Psychology, Biology
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • 1994
A mechanism is proposed that is able to encode the desired goal of the action and is applicable to different levels of representational organization, as well as investigating the role of posterior parietal and premotor cortical areas in schema instantiation.
A Bio‐Informational Theory of Emotional Imagery
A theory of emotional imagery is described which conceives the image in the brain to be a conceptual network, controlling specific somatovisceral patterns, and constituting a prototype for overt
On relations between perceiving, imagining and performing in the learning of cyclical movement sequences.
  • S. Vogt
  • Psychology
    British journal of psychology
  • 1995
The findings suggest that performance, observation and imagery of sequential patterns involve a common process, characterized as event generation, which is either coupled to an articulatory system (in the case of physical practice), synchronized with an external event (inThe case of observational practice), or 'runs free' without such articulatory or perceptual coupling in the cases of imagery.
The Use of Imagery by Athletes in Selected Sports
The use of imagery by athletes was assessed by administering a 37-item questionnaire to a sample of 381 male and female participants from six sports. The sample comprised competitors in the sports of