The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games

@article{Flyvbjerg2016TheOO,
  title={The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games},
  author={Bent Flyvbjerg and Allison Stewart and Alexander Budzier},
  journal={Strategy \& Microeconomic Policy eJournal},
  year={2016}
}
Given that Olympic Games held over the past decade each have cost USD 8.9 billion on average, the size and financial risks of the Games warrant study. The objectives of the Oxford Olympics study are to (1) establish the actual outturn costs of previous Olympic Games in a manner where cost can consistently be compared across Games; (2) establish cost overruns for previous Games, i.e., the degree to which final outturn costs reflect projected budgets at the bid stage, again in a way that allows… 
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