The Out-of-Body Experience: Disturbed Self-Processing at the Temporo-Parietal Junction

@article{Blanke2005TheOE,
  title={The Out-of-Body Experience: Disturbed Self-Processing at the Temporo-Parietal Junction},
  author={Olaf Blanke and Shahar Arzy},
  journal={The Neuroscientist},
  year={2005},
  volume={11},
  pages={16 - 24}
}
  • O. Blanke, S. Arzy
  • Published 1 February 2005
  • Psychology, Biology
  • The Neuroscientist
Folk psychology postulates a spatial unity of self and body, a “real me” that resides in one’s body and is the subject of experience. The spatial unity of self and body has been challenged by various philosophical considerations but also by several phenomena, perhaps most notoriously the “out-of-body experience” (OBE) during which one’s visuo-spatial perspective and one’s self are experienced to have departed from their habitual position within one’s body. Here the authors marshal evidence from… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Multi-Sensory and Sensorimotor Foundation of Bodily Self-Consciousness – An Interdisciplinary Approach
TLDR
It is argued that TPJ is one of the key areas for multi-sensory integration of bodily self-consciousness, that its levels of activity reflect the experience of the conscious “I” as embodied and localized within bodily space, and that these mechanisms can be systematically investigated using state of the art technologies such as robotics, virtual reality, and non-invasive neuroimaging.
Anchoring the Self to the Body
TLDR
It is hypothesized that one function of this fundamental vestibular input might be to bind together multiple sensory signals to provide the normal embodied perspective on the world.
Who am I in out of body experiences? Implications from OBEs for the explanandum of a theory of self-consciousness
Contemporary theories of self-consciousness typically begin by dividing experiences of the self into types, each requiring separate explanation. The stereotypical case of an out of body experience
Own-Body Perception
‘Own-body perception’ refers to the perception of one’s body as one’s own body. The chapter reviews various disruptions to own-body perception, including what is known about their neural correlates.
Neural Basis of Embodiment: Distinct Contributions of Temporoparietal Junction and Extrastriate Body Area
TLDR
Evoked potential mapping and a distributed linear inverse solution show that distributed brain activity at the EBA and TPJ as well as their timing are crucial for the coding of the self as embodied and as spatially situated within the human body.
Self-specific processing in the meditating brain: a MEG neurophenomenology study
TLDR
The graded nature as well as the trainable flexibility and neural plasticity of SSPs may hold clinical implications for populations with a disturbed SB, and the results were partly validated in an independent group of 10 long-term meditators.
The inside of me: interoceptive constraints on the concept of self in neuroscience and clinical psychology.
TLDR
It is argued that interoception contributes to the stability of the self-concept over time, unifying its layers and constraining the degree to which it is susceptible to external influences.
Functional and Neural Mechanisms of Embodiment: Importance of the Vestibular System and the Temporal Parietal Junction
TLDR
It is argued that pathologies concerning the disembodied self, such as out-of-body experience or other autoscopic phenomena, are due to deficient multisensory integration at the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ).
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 53 REFERENCES
Out-of-body experience and autoscopy of neurological origin.
TLDR
It is argued that both disintegrations (personal; personal-extrapersonal) are necessary for the occurrence of OBE and AS, and that they are due to a paroxysmal cerebral dysfunction of the TPJ in a state of partially and briefly impaired consciousness.
Five kinds of self‐knowledge
Abstract Self‐knowledge is based on several different forms of information, so distinct that each one essentially establishes a different ‘self. The ecological self is the self as directly perceived
Effect of subjective perspective taking during simulation of action: a PET investigation of agency
TLDR
It is suggested that the right inferior parietal, precuneus and somatosensory cortex are specifically involved in distinguishing self-produced actions from those generated by others.
Shared representations between self and other: a social cognitive neuroscience view
The Psychological Approach to Out-Of-Body Experiences: A Review of Early and Modem Developments
ABSTRACT This is a review of psychological approaches to out-of-body experiences (OBEs) since the 19th century. Some of the work discussed includes explanations of OBEs based on imaginal processes,
Phantom limbs: The body in mind
  • P. Halligan
  • Medicine, Biology
    Cognitive neuropsychiatry
  • 2002
TLDR
Experimental investigations of phantom limbs have revealed the dynamic neural processes that provide for both phantom and normal corporeal embodiment and helped to overturn widely held scientific assumptions regarding the extent of neural plasticity in the adult brain.
A Parametric Study of Mental Spatial Transformations of Bodies
TLDR
A model of spatial reasoning that postulates specialized subsystems for performing object-based and egocentric perspective image transformations is proposed and areas in right temporal, occipital and parietal cortex and the medial superior cerebellum appear to be differentially involved in object- based spatial transformations.
Illusory Reduplication of One's Own Body: Phenomenology and Classification of Autoscopic Phenomena.
TLDR
The main features of autoscope hallucinations, heautoscopy proper, the feeling of a presence, the out-of-body experience, and negative and inner forms of autoscopic phenomena are outlined.
Extrastriate body area in human occipital cortex responds to the performance of motor actions
TLDR
Functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence that the EBA is strongly modulated by limb (arm, foot) movements to a visual target stimulus, even in the absence of visual feedback from the movement is reported.
...
...