The Origins of C4 Grasslands: Integrating Evolutionary and Ecosystem Science

@article{Edwards2010TheOO,
  title={The Origins of C4 Grasslands: Integrating Evolutionary and Ecosystem Science},
  author={Erika J Edwards and Colin P. Osborne and Caroline A. E. Str{\"o}mberg and Stephen A. Smith},
  journal={Science},
  year={2010},
  volume={328},
  pages={587 - 591}
}
Grassland Emergence The evolution of the C4 photosynthetic pathway from the ancestral C3 pathway in grasses led to the establishment of grasslands in warm climates during the Late Miocene (8 to 3 million years ago). This was a major event in plant evolutionary history, and their high rates of foliage production sustained high levels of herbivore consumption. The past decade has seen significant advances in understanding C4 grassland ecosystem ecology, and now a wealth of data on the geological… 

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The role of fire in Miocene to Pliocene C4 grassland and ecosystem evolution

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Grassland fire ecology has roots in the late Miocene

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Opposite macroevolutionary responses to environmental changes in grasses and insects during the Neogene grassland expansion

Opposition evolutionary dynamics in a clade of African grasses and associated stemborers are shown, opposing the hypothesis about grasslands as a 'cradle' of herbivore diversity and calling into question the role of grasslandsAs a universal adaptive cradle.

The Neogene transition from C3 to C4 grasslands in North America: assemblage analysis of fossil phytoliths

Abstract The rapid ecological expansion of grasses with C4 photosynthesis at the end of the Neogene (8-2 Ma) is well documented in the fossil record of stable carbon isotopes. As one of the most

The stable isotope ecology of mycalesine butterflies: implications for plant–insect co-evolution

It is demonstrated that the feeding history of mycalesine larvae on C3 and C4 grasses can be traced by analysing δ13C in the organic material of the adult exoskeleton, while values of δ18O in the adult reflect atmospheric humidity during larval development.
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