The Origin of the Latin Numerals 1 to 1000

  title={The Origin of the Latin Numerals 1 to 1000},
  author={Paul T. Keyser},
  journal={American Journal of Archaeology},
  pages={529 - 546}
  • P. Keyser
  • Published 1 October 1988
  • History
  • American Journal of Archaeology
The standard theory of the origin of Latin numerals, found in all the best handbooks, is that of Mommsen (1850). He explains I, V, and X on a pictographic principle, and L, C, and ↀ = 1000 as forms of Greek letters (aspirates) unused in Latin. There are four other important theories: a long-rejected one proposed by the fifth-century A. C. grammarian Priscian, a tally-mark theory (dating back to 1546), various pictographic theories (dating back to 1655), and various acrophonic theories. The… 
Literary Evidence for Roman Arithmetic with Fractions
R OMAN ARITHMETIC IS A PERENNIALLY TROUBLING subject for both classicists and mathematicians. Scholars universally comment on the difficulty posed by Roman alphabetical notation both in expressing
An Analysis of Nonpositional Numeral Systems
The goal of this paper is to obtain a finer classification for nonpositional numeral systems, including the Hindu-Arabic numerals, which are characterised by the feature that the position of a particular symbol within the representation of a number is irrelevant.
Number and Numeracy in Early Greek Literature
The issue of Greek numeracy before c. 550 BC has been neglected, though an understanding of it is necessary to appreciate the intellectual history of Greece in the archaic period. After the Bronze
Re-evaluating merit: Multiple overlapping factors explain the evolution of numerical notations
ABSTRACT How should we evaluate the merit of written numeral systems? The present ubiquity of the Hindu-Arabic (Western) numerals might suggest that narrow considerations of efficiency have promoted
The general adoption of “Arabic” numerals by European bookkeepers occurred at least five hundred years after their introduction to the scholarly world. The early availability yet late adoption of t...
Mutation du système numéral de l'igo
Resume – Depuis une vingtaine d’annees, le systeme numeral de la langue igo est en mutation, un fait qui se traduit par une simplification dans la composition des termes, c’est-a-dire des nombres de


Digital Reckoning Among the Ancients
(1916). Digital Reckoning Among the Ancients. The American Mathematical Monthly: Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 7-13.
Ong for bringing the copy of the 1569 edition containing Ramus's autograph notes to my attention (24 November 1986): see J.F
  • 1986
Note added in proof: Nancy de Grummond has kindly directed my attention to Livia Giacardi
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Respublica Literaria Neerlandica 5, Assen 1981), who does not mention this work by Voss although it is listed in the National Union Catalogue 642:618 NV 0241831-5
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Studien zur Geschichte des griechischen Alphabets4 (Gutersloh 1887; repr
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Terza campagna di scavi a Punta della Vipera e scoperto di una laminetta plumbea iscritti
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A Latin Dictionary (Oxford 1879) s. "X", citing assis -> axis, lassus -> laxus, Odysseus -> Ulixes (which also shows the familiar d -> 1 of Latin, cf. Lewis and Short s
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