The Origin of Gravitational Lensing: A Postscript to Einstein's 1936 Science Paper

  title={The Origin of Gravitational Lensing: A Postscript to Einstein's 1936 Science Paper},
  author={J{\"u}rgen Renn and Tilman Sauer and John J. Stachel},
  pages={184 - 186}
Gravitational lensing, now taken as an important astrophysical consequence of the general theory of relativity, was found even before this theory was formulated but was discarded as a speculative idea without any chance of empirical confirmation. Reconstruction of some of Einstein's research notes dating back to 1912 reveals that he explored the possibility of gravitational lensing 3 years before completing his general theory of relativity. On the basis of preliminary insights into this theory… 
The Legacy of Einstein’s Eclipse, Gravitational Lensing
A hundred years ago, two British expeditions measured the deflection of starlight by the Sun’s gravitational field, confirming the prediction made by Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. One
Nova Geminorum 1912 and the origin of the idea of gravitational lensing
Einstein’s early calculations of gravitational lensing, contained in a scratch notebook and dated to the spring of 1912, are reexamined. A hitherto unknown letter by Einstein suggests that he
Gravitational Lensing in Astronomy
Although still in its childhood, lensing has established itself as a very useful astrophysical tool with some remarkable successes and is predicted to have an even more luminous future for gravitational lensing.
The 1919 measurement of the deflection of light
The measurement of the deflection of starlight during a total solar eclipse on 29 May 1919 was the first verification of general relativity by an external team of scientists, brought Einstein and his
The gravitational bending of light by stars: a continuing story of curiosity, scepticism, surprise, and fascination
Driven entirely by human curiosity, the effect of the gravitational bending of light has evolved on unforeseen paths, in an interplay between shifts in prevailing paradigms and advance of technology,
Exploring gravitational lensing
In this article, we discuss the idea of gravitational lensing, from a systematic, historical and didactic point of view. We show how the basic lensing equation together with the concepts of
Shadows and strong gravitational lensing: a brief review
For ultra compact objects, light rings and fundamental photon orbits (FPOs) play a pivotal role in the theoretical analysis of strong gravitational lensing effects, and of BH shadows in particular.
Recent astronomical tests of general relativity
The history of experimentation relevant to general relativity covers the time post-1928. Classes of investigation are the weak equivalence principle (equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass
Why is an Einstein Ring Blue
Albert Einstein predicted the existence of ‘Einstein rings’ as a consequence of his general theory of relativity. The phenomenon is a direct result of the idea that if a mass warps space-time then
Studying planet populations with Einstein's blip
  • M. Dominik
  • Physics, Geology
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2010
Gravitational microlensing favours a range of orbital separations that covers planets whose orbital periods are too long to allow detection by other indirect techniques, but which are still too close to their host star to be detected by means of their emitted or reflected light.


Some time ago, R. W. Mandi paid me a visit and asked me to publish the results of a little calculation, which I had made at his request. This note complies with his wish.
The collected papers of Albert Einstein
List of Texts xiii List of Illustrations xxxiii INTRODUCTORY MATERIAL Introduction to Volume 14 xxxv Editorial Method of the Series lxxxv Acknowledgments xciii Note on the Translation xcv List of
Space, Time and Gravitation