The Origin and Dynamics of Subalpine White Spruce and Balsam Fir Stands in Boreal Eastern North America

@article{Lafontaine2010TheOA,
  title={The Origin and Dynamics of Subalpine White Spruce and Balsam Fir Stands in Boreal Eastern North America},
  author={Guillaume de Lafontaine and Serge Payette},
  journal={Ecosystems},
  year={2010},
  volume={13},
  pages={932-947}
}
Associations among the few tree species in the North American boreal landscape are the result of complex interactions between climate, biota, and historical disturbances during the Holocene. The closed-crown boreal forest of eastern North America is subdivided into two ecological regions having distinct tree species associations; the balsam fir zone and the black spruce zone, south and north of 49°N, respectively. Subalpine old-growth stands dominated by trees species typical of the balsam fir… CONTINUE READING

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