The Opportunity Rover's Athena Science Investigation at Meridiani Planum, Mars

@article{Squyres2004TheOR,
  title={The Opportunity Rover's Athena Science Investigation at Meridiani Planum, Mars},
  author={Steven W. Squyres and Raymond E. Arvidson and James F. Bell and Johannes Br{\"u}ckner and Nathalie A. Cabrol and Wendy M. Calvin and Michael H. Carr and P. R. Christensen and Benton C. Clark and Larry S. Crumpler and D. J. Des Marais and C. d'Uston and T. Economou and Jack D. Farmer and William H. Farrand and William M. Folkner and Matthew P. Golombek and Stephen Gorevan and John A. Grant and Ronald Greeley and John P. Grotzinger and Larry A. Haskin and Kenneth E. Herkenhoff and S. F. Hviid and J. R. Johnson and G{\"o}star Klingelh{\"o}fer and Andrew H. Knoll and Geoffrey A. Landis and Mark T. Lemmon and R. Li and Morten Bo Madsen and Michael C. Malin and Scott M. McLennan and Harry Y. McSween and Doug W. Ming and Jeffrey Moersch and Richard V. Morris and Timothy J. Parker and James William Rice and L. Richter and Rudolf Rieder and Mark Sims and M. D. Smith and P. M. Smith and Laurence A. Soderblom and Robert J. Sullivan and Heinrich W{\"a}nke and Thomas John Wdowiak and Michael J. Wolff and Albert S. Yen},
  journal={Science},
  year={2004},
  volume={306},
  pages={1698 - 1703}
}
The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has investigated the landing site in Eagle crater and the nearby plains within Meridiani Planum. The soils consist of fine-grained basaltic sand and a surface lag of hematite-rich spherules, spherule fragments, and other granules. Wind ripples are common. Underlying the thin soil layer, and exposed within small impact craters and troughs, are flat-lying sedimentary rocks. These rocks are finely laminated, are rich in sulfur, and contain abundant sulfate… 

Evidence for Water at Meridiani

The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has examined sedimentary structures in the Burns formation at Meridiani Planum. The materials in this formation reflect, in part, subaqueous deposition of

Soils of Eagle Crater and Meridiani Planum at the Opportunity Rover Landing Site

The soils at the Opportunity site are fine-grained basaltic sands mixed with dust and sulfate-rich outcrop debris and spherules emerge from soils coated, perhaps from subsurface cementation, by salts.

Overview of the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover mission to Meridiani Planum: Eagle crater to Purgatory ripple

The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity touched down at Meridiani Planum in January 2004 and since then has been conducting observations with the Athena science payload. The rover has traversed more

Two Years at Meridiani Planum: Results from the Opportunity Rover

Observations from microscopic to orbital scales indicate that ancient Meridiani once had abundant acidic groundwater, arid and oxidizing surface conditions, and occasional liquid flow on the surface.

Impact origin of sediments at the Opportunity landing site on Mars

A simple alternative explanation involving deposition from a ground-hugging turbulent flow of rock fragments, salts, sulphides, brines and ice produced by meteorite impact is presented, which can account for all of the features observed without invoking shallow seas, lakes or near-surface aquifers.

Overview of the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover Mission to Gusev Crater: Landing site to Backstay Rock in the Columbia Hills

Spirit landed on the floor of Gusev Crater and conducted initial operations on soil-covered, rock-strewn cratered plains underlain by olivine-bearing basalts. Plains surface rocks are covered by

Exploration of Victoria Crater by the Mars Rover Opportunity

Analysis of rocks in the walls of Victoria reveals that the aqueous alteration processes that operated at Eagle and Endurance also acted at Victoria, and sedimentary layering in the crater walls preserves evidence of ancient windblown dunes.

In Situ Evidence for an Ancient Aqueous Environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars

The geologic record at Meridiani Planum suggests that conditions were suitable for biological activity for a period of time in martian history.
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Soils of Eagle Crater and Meridiani Planum at the Opportunity Rover Landing Site

The soils at the Opportunity site are fine-grained basaltic sands mixed with dust and sulfate-rich outcrop debris and spherules emerge from soils coated, perhaps from subsurface cementation, by salts.

In Situ Evidence for an Ancient Aqueous Environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars

The geologic record at Meridiani Planum suggests that conditions were suitable for biological activity for a period of time in martian history.

Mineralogy at Meridiani Planum from the Mini-TES Experiment on the Opportunity Rover

The Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer on Opportunity investigated the mineral abundances and compositions of outcrops, rocks, and soils at Meridiani Planum, finding Bounce rock is dominated by clinopyroxene and is close in inferred mineral composition to the basaltic martian meteorites.

Geologic setting and origin of Terra Meridiani hematite deposit on Mars

[1] We have completed a regional analysis of the hematite deposit in Terra Meridiani and conclude that the unit is in the midst of a 600-m-thick stack of friable layered materials superposed on

The Spirit Rover's Athena science investigation at Gusev Crater, Mars.

The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and its Athena science payload have been used to investigate a landing site in Gusev crater, but no clear evidence for lacustrine sedimentation has been found to date.

Mantled and exhumed terrains in Terra Meridiani, Mars

[1] Hematite-bearing deposits in the Terra Meridiani region of Mars constitute the top stratum of a partially eroded layered complex that covers dissected Noachian-aged cratered terrain. The hematite

Jarosite and Hematite at Meridiani Planum from Opportunity's Mössbauer Spectrometer

Mössbauer spectra measured by the Opportunity rover revealed four mineralogical components in Meridiani Planum at Eagle crater: jarosite- and hematite-rich outcrop, hematite-rich soil,

Chemistry of Rocks and Soils at Meridiani Planum from the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer

The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer on the Opportunity rover determined major and minor elements of soils and rocks in Meridiani Planum, indicating the interaction with water in the past is indicated by the chemical features in rocks and soils.

Evidence for extensive denudation of the Martian highlands

High-resolution topographic data from the Mars Orbiter laser altimeter reveal evidence for widespread denudation from Margaritifer Sinus to northern Arabia Terra, an area of ∼1 × 107 km2. A major

Pancam Multispectral Imaging Results from the Opportunity Rover at Meridiani Planum

Panoramic Camera (Pancam) images from Meridiani Planum reveal a low-albedo, generally flat, and relatively rock-free surface and Atmospheric observations show a steady decline in dust opacity during the mission.