The Omnipotence of Voices

@article{Chadwick1994TheOO,
  title={The Omnipotence of Voices},
  author={Paul Chadwick and Max Birchwood},
  journal={British Journal of Psychiatry},
  year={1994},
  volume={164},
  pages={190 - 201}
}
We offer provisional support for a new cognitive approach to understanding and treating drug-resistant auditory hallucinations in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Study 1 emphasises the relevance of the cognitive model by detailing the behavioural, cognitive and affective responses to persistent voices in 26 patients, demonstrating that highly disparate relationships with voices - fear, reassurance, engagement and resistance - reflect vital differences in beliefs about the voices. All… 
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The results indicate that a positive relationship with voices may affect social functioning, and patients with benevolent voices are overrepresented, and these results have implications for the use of cognitive therapy for psychotic symptoms.
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The authors suggest that the voice experience in itself is enough to provoke negative affect within participants, even when the content is benevolent, and improve the assessment of the voice content by using two raters to independently assess voice content.
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The research aimed to develop the cognitive model of the emotional impact of voices by examining further possible associations with participants' self-evaluations, hypothesising that these evaluations are associated with the affective response.
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The results indicate that voices cannot be considered merely as symptoms, but may be seen also as adaptation systems and that voice hearers should be allowed to preserve them.
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Beliefs about auditory hallucinations have been found to influence voice hearers' behavioural and emotional reactions to the hallucinations. It is currently unknown however, how these beliefs change
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It is now widely recognised that some people hear voices in the absence of distress or a need for psychiatric care. Although there have been reports of such individuals throughout history, until
Beliefs about Voices and Schemas about Self and Others in Psychosis
TLDR
Schemas, particularly those regarding the self, are potentially important in the formation of a range of clinically-relevant beliefs about voices.
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