The Norepinephrine Transporter Inhibitor Reboxetine Reduces Stimulant Effects of MDMA (“Ecstasy”) in Humans

@article{Hysek2011TheNT,
  title={The Norepinephrine Transporter Inhibitor Reboxetine Reduces Stimulant Effects of MDMA (“Ecstasy”) in Humans},
  author={C. M. Hysek and LD Simmler and Michael Ineichen and Eric Grouzmann and MC Hoener and Rudolf Brenneisen and Joerg Huwyler and Melanie Liechti},
  journal={Clinical Pharmacology \& Therapeutics},
  year={2011},
  volume={90}
}
This study assessed the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic effects of the interaction between the selective norepinephrine (NE) transporter inhibitor reboxetine and 3,4‐methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) in 16 healthy subjects. The study used a double‐blind, placebo‐controlled crossover design. Reboxetine reduced the effects of MDMA including elevations in plasma levels of NE, increases in blood pressure and heart rate, subjective drug high, stimulation, and emotional excitation… 

Duloxetine Inhibits Effects of MDMA (“Ecstasy") In Vitro and in Humans in a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Laboratory Study

The findings confirm the important role of MDMA-induced 5-HT and NE release in the psychotropic effects of MDMA and suggest duloxetine may be useful in the treatment of psychostimulant dependence.

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Effects of the α2-Adrenergic Agonist Clonidine on the Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine in Healthy Volunteers

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&agr;1-Adrenergic Receptors Contribute to the Acute Effects of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine in Humans

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Distinct acute effects of LSD, MDMA, and d-amphetamine in healthy subjects

Investigation of the acute autonomic, subjective, and endocrine effects of single doses of LSD, MDMA, and d-amphetamine in 28 healthy subjects indicates clearly distinct acute effects and may assist the dose-finding in substance-assisted psychotherapy research.

Sex differences in the effects of MDMA (ecstasy) on plasma copeptin in healthy subjects.

MDMA increased plasma copeptin, a marker for AVP secretion, in women but not in men, which may explain why hyponatremia is typically reported in female ecstasy users.

Prediction of MDMA response in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of placebo-controlled studies

Although MDMA plasma concentration was the strongest predictor, several personality traits and mood state variables additionally explained variance in the response to MDMA, confirming that both pharmacological and non-pharmacological variables influence the response of MDMA.

(MDMA): current perspectives

Even though MDMA is listed as a Schedule I compound by the Drug Enforcement Agency, MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for patients with chronic, treatment-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder is currently under investigation and initial results show efficacy for this treatment approach, although considerably more research must be formed to confirm such efficacy.

3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): current perspectives

  • J. Meyer
  • Psychology, Biology
    Substance abuse and rehabilitation
  • 2013
MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for patients with chronic, treatment-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder is currently under investigation, and initial results show efficacy for this treatment approach, although considerably more research must be performed to confirm such efficacy and to ensure that the benefits of MDMA-assisted therapy outweigh the risks to the patients.
...

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