The Newtonian gravitational constant: recent measurements and related studies

  title={The Newtonian gravitational constant: recent measurements and related studies},
  author={George T. Gillies},
  journal={Reports on Progress in Physics},
  • G. Gillies
  • Published 1 February 1997
  • Physics
  • Reports on Progress in Physics
Improvements in our knowledge of the absolute value of the Newtonian gravitational constant, G, have come very slowly over the years. Most other constants of nature are known (and some even predictable) to parts per billion, or parts per million at worst. However, G stands mysteriously alone, its history being that of a quantity which is extremely difficult to measure and which remains virtually isolated from the theoretical structure of the rest of physics. Several attempts aimed at changing… 
Progress in Precise Measurements of the Gravitational Constant
The Newtonian gravitational constant G, which is one of the earliest fundamental constants introduced by human beings, plays an important role in cosmology, astrophysics, geophysics, metrology, and
Precision measurement of the Newtonian gravitational constant
The history of the G measurement is briefly reviewed, and eleven values of G adopted in CODATA 2014 after 2000 are introduced and the latest two values published in 2018 are introduced using two independent methods.
Newton's constant and the twenty-first century laboratory
  • C. Speake
  • Physics, Geology
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2005
The problems that confront experimentalists who attempt to determine Newton's constant of gravitation, G are described and some key aspects of a precision determination of G are discussed.
Status of measurement of the Newtonian gravitational constant G
A precise knowledge of the Newtonian gravitational constant G has an important place in physics and is of considerable metrological interest. Although G was the first physical constant to be
Invited Review Article: Measurements of the Newtonian constant of gravitation, G
A large array of different instruments ranging from the simple torsion balance to the sophisticated atom interferometer can be used to determine G, which is several orders of magnitudes greater than the relative uncertainties of other fundamental constants.
Quantum Physics-motivated Measurements and Interpretation of Newtonian Gravitational Constant
One of the most easily recognized yet quantitatively elusive constants in all of physics is the Newtonian gravitational constant, G. Because the gravitational force is so weak and it cannot be
Does Newton’s gravitational constant vary sinusoidally with time? Orbital motions say no
A sinusoidally time-varying pattern of the values of Newton’s constant of gravitation G measured in Earth-based laboratories over the last few decades has been recently reported in the literature. We
Progress in the Composite view of the Newton Gravitational Constant and its link to the Planck scale
The Newtonian gravity constant G plays a central role in gravitational theory. Researchers have since at least the 1980’s tried to see if the Newton gravitational constant can be expressed or
The Free-Fall Determination of the Universal Constant of Gravity
Date The nal copy of this thesis has been examined by the signatories, and we nd that both the content and the form meet acceptable presentation standards of scholarly work in the above mentioned
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The measurements of quantities providing information on the values of the fundamental physical constants bring together a wide variety of measurements in very different parts of physics in a unique


The Newtonian Gravitational Constant: An index of measurements
The Newtonian Gravitational Constant, G, has probably been measured more often but, interestingly, with less precision than any other physical constant of fundamental importance. In an effort that
Finding a better value for G
The gravitational proportionality constant G, although one of the first constants measured and perhaps the most fundamental and universal constant in Nature, is now the least accurately known. G,
Non-Newtonian Gravity and New Weak Forces: an Index of Measurements and Theory
The precise measurement of weak effects plays a pivotal role in metrology and in the determination of the fundamental constants. Hence, the possibility of new weak forces, and the related question of
Proposed new determination of the gravitational constant G and tests of Newtonian gravitation.
  • Sanders, Deeds
  • Geology
    Physical review. D, Particles and fields
  • 1992
Measurements within an orbiting satellite are proposed which would improve the accuracy of G by two orders of magnitude and also place new upper limits on the field-strength parameter α of any Yukawa-type force, assuming a null result.
Determination of the gravitational constant with a lake experiment: New constraints for non-Newtonian gravity.
The gravitational constant G has been determined at two effective interaction distances 88 m and 112 m, respectively and new constraints on the strength and range of a composition-independent fifth force are set.
Constraints on the gravitational constant at large distances
D. R. Long (1976) and others have speculated that the gravitational force between point masses in the Newtonian regime might not be exactly proportional to 1/r squared. Distance-dependent deviations
Determination of the gravitational constant at an effective mass separation of 22 m.
  • Moore, Stacey, Agnew
  • Geology, Physics
    Physical review. D, Particles and fields
  • 1988
Measurements from a vacuum balance that compares the weights of 10-kg stainless-steel masses suspended in evacuated tubes at different levels in a hydroelectric reservoir are used to measure the gravitational attractions of layers of lake water up to 10 m in depth, making it the largest-scale measurement of G using precisely controlled moving masses.
III. On the causes of the great variation among the different measures of the Earth’s mean density
  • W. Jacob
  • Economics
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London
  • 1857
The result of the Pendulum experiments in the Harton Colliery, undertaken by the Astronomer Royal in 1854, and detailed in his paper presented to the Royal Society in January 1856, appears at first
Does the gravitational “constant” increase?
The possibility that the gravitational coupling “constant”G is an increasing function of the cosmic timet is discussed.In Section 1 the Maximal Power Hypothesis (MPH) stating that no power in Nature