The New Human Kallikrein Gene Family: Implications in Carcinogenesis

@article{Diamandis2000TheNH,
  title={The New Human Kallikrein Gene Family: Implications in Carcinogenesis},
  author={Eleftherios P. Diamandis and George M. Yousef and L Y Luo and Angeliki Magklara and Christina V. Obiezu},
  journal={Trends in Endocrinology \& Metabolism},
  year={2000},
  volume={11},
  pages={54-60}
}
The traditional human kallikrein gene family consists of three genes, namely KLK1 [encoding human kallikrein 1 (hK1) or pancreatic/renal kallikrein], KLK2 (encoding hK2, previously known as human glandular kallikrein 1) and KLK3 [encoding hK3 or prostate-specific antigen (PSA)]. KLK2 and KLK3 have important applications in prostate cancer diagnostics and, more recently, in breast cancer diagnostics. During the past two to three years, new putative members of the human kallikrein gene family… Expand
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Preliminary results indicate that the expression of KLK12 is down-regulated at the mRNA level in breast cancer tissues and is up-regulated by steroid hormones in breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Expand
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The New Kallikrein-like Gene, KLK-L2
TLDR
A new gene named KLK-L2, for kallikrein- like gene 2, which is expressed mainly in breast, brain, and testis and to a lesser extent in many other tissues is identified and Homology studies suggest that the protein is likely secreted. Expand
Identification of novel human kallikrein-like genes on chromosome 19q13.3-q13.4.
TLDR
It is concluded, contrary to the current belief, that the human kallikrein gene locus contains a large number of kallkrein-like genes (at least thirteen). Expand
The New Kallikrein-like Gene , KLK-L 2 MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION , MAPPING , TISSUE EXPRESSION , AND HORMONAL
Since in rodents the kallikreins are represented by a large multi-gene family, the restriction of this family in humans to three genes is somewhat surprising. In an effort to identify new humanExpand
Characterization of the human kallikrein locus.
TLDR
Analysis of an area of 110 kb surrounding the kallikrein genes by CHEF electrophoresis and chromosome walking showed clustering of the three genes, and a CpG island was detected in the region between KLK1 and APS. Expand
Prostase/KLK-L1 is a new member of the human kallikrein gene family, is expressed in prostate and breast tissues, and is hormonally regulated.
TLDR
The precise mapping and localization of the prostase/KLK-L1 gene between the known genes KLK2 (human glandular kallikrein) and zyme (also known as protease M/neurosin) is described and it is speculated that prostase may be involved in the pathogenesis and/or progression of prostate, breast, and possibly other malignancies. Expand
Localization of a New Prostate-specific Antigen-related Serine Protease Gene, KLK4, Is Evidence for an Expanded Human Kallikrein Gene Family Cluster on Chromosome 19q13.3–13.4*
TLDR
The identified an expressed sequence tag from an endometrial carcinoma cDNA library with 50% identity to the three known KLK genes and suggests that the human kallikrein gene family locus on chromosome 19 is larger than previously thought and also indicates a greater sequence divergence within this family compared with the highly conserved rodent kallkrein genes. Expand
Molecular characterization of zyme/protease M/neurosin (PRSS9), a hormonally regulated kallikrein-like serine protease.
TLDR
Zyme is regulated by steroid hormones in the breast carcinoma cell line BT-474, and estrogens and progestins, and to a lesser extent androgens, up-regulate the zyme gene in a dose-dependent manner. Expand
Human Kallikrein 2 (hK2) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA): two closely related, but distinct, kallikreins in the prostate.
TLDR
The production of hK2 protein in active protease form and specific monoclonal antibodies to the hK1 antigen will allow extensive future studies delineating the physiological and clinical utility of this new prostate antigen. Expand
Mouse glandular kallikrein genes. Structure and partial sequence analysis of the kallikrein gene locus.
TLDR
It is found that a maximum of 14 mouse kallikrein genes have the potential to encode functional proteins, and those which are pseudogenes or encode proteins of unknown function are assigned. Expand
Human glandular kallikrein in breast milk, amniotic fluid, and breast cyst fluid.
TLDR
It is suggested that the female breast may produce hK2 and evidence that hK 2 may have value as an additional marker for the discrimination between type I and type II breast cysts is provided. Expand
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