The Natural Imperative for Biological Conservation

  title={The Natural Imperative for Biological Conservation},
  author={Paul L. Angermeier},
  journal={Conservation Biology},
  • P. Angermeier
  • Published 1 April 2000
  • Environmental Science
  • Conservation Biology
Abstract: To contribute significantly to environmental policy of the next century, conservationists will need to reach a consensus on their fundamental values and goals and to persuade society to adopt them. Resolution of the debate over the continued role of naturalness as a guiding concept has important implications for how conservation is practiced and the future of the discipline. I examine five aspects of naturalness in the context of biological conservation: (1) its utility, (2) its… 

Development of a Natural Practice to Adapt Conservation Goals to Global Change

  • N. HellerR. Hobbs
  • Environmental Science
    Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
  • 2014
It is suggested that the way the authors interact with other species in management and the extent to which those interactions reflect the interactions among other biotic organisms, and also reflect their conservation virtues, influences their ability to cultivate naturalness on the landscape.

An Exploration of the Value of Naturalness and Wild Nature

The source of the value of naturalness is of considerable relevance for the conservation movement, to philosophers, and to society generally. However, naturalness is a complex quality and resists

The dimensions of evolutionary potential in biological conservation

It is argued that those who advocate for the conservation of evolutionary potential should position their conception along four dimensions: what vehicles instantiate the evolutionary potential relevant to their normative commitment; what temporality is involved; how measurable evolutionary potential is, and what degree of human influence is tolerated.


  • G. Halffter
  • Environmental Science
  • 2005
This article is intended as a synthesis of the ideas, previously presented by the author, on the conservation of biodiversity as well as new proposals, heretofore unpublished. The author focusses on

Biodiversity Versus Nature: Values in Conflict

In just a few decades, biodiversity conservation has become the dominant goal within natural area management. The rapid rise to predominance of this concept is widely regarded as a triumph for

Toward a Robust Natural Imperative for Conservation

It is suggested that Angermeier's natural imperative, as currently formulated, misses the mark as a useful framework for conservation in the twenty-first century.

Beyond Biology: toward a More Public Ecology for Conservation

Abstract: The ultimate purpose of conservation science is to inform and affect conservation policy. Therefore, conservation biologists and all the people who produce, review, and apply conservation

A Chronological Frame of Reference for Ecological Integrity and Natural Conditions

Biological integrity, environmental health, and naturalness are increasingly relevant to the management of conservation lands. Biological integrity and environmental health, integrated via the

THE LIMITS TO PARTICIPATION IN DIS‐EQUILIBRIUM ECOLOGY: Maori involvement in habitat restoration within Te Urewera National Park

The focus of conservation has shifted from wilderness preservation to ‘an intense concern for conserving biodiversity in all its facets’ (Sanderson et al., 2002, p. 59). This change is sometimes

Resurrecting the conservation movement

Conservationists are losing the battle to protect nature because they are failing to connect with the hearts, anxieties, and minds of a large segment of the American public. If conservationists are



Benchmarks for Managing Ecosystems: Are Human Activities Natural?

For conservation biologists one of the fundamental goals of managing ecosystems is to maintain or restore their natural structure and ftinction (Noss & Cooperrider 1994). In ecological reserves we

The Report of the Ecological Society of America Committee on the Scientific Basis for Ecosystem Management

Ecosystem management is management driven by explicit goals, executed by policies, protocols, and practices, and made adaptable by monitoring and research based on our best understanding of the

A Science for Survival: Values and Conservation Biology

Practice of conservation biology that does not actively and continuously question the values that shape it is self-defeating: Conservation biology is inescapably normative. Advocacy for the

Conservation of Biodiversity in a World of Use

Abstract: Biodiversity conservation has become the stated objective of national governments, state agencies, local communities, and scientific organizations. Yet despite this attention the term

Indigenous Knowledge for Biodiversity Conservation

Indigenous peoples with a historical continuity of resource-use practices often possess a broad knowledge base of the behavior of complex ecological systems in their own localities. This knowledge

The New Paradigm in Ecology: Implications for Conservation Biology Above the Species Level

The contemporary paradigm in ecology is outlined and how the science of ecology has been affected by the shift in paradigm is shown to be problematical.

Conservation Biology

  • J. Lawton
  • Environmental Science
    Springer US
  • 1998
New Zealand Journal of Ecology (1997) 21(2): 117-120 ©New Zealand Ecological Society the heat of the battle tends to obscure, rather than to illuminate. What do we wish to conserve, and why? A simple

Ecological Sustainability as a Conservation Concept

Neither the classic resource management concept of maximum sustainable yield nor the concept of sustainable development are useful to contemporary, nonanthropocentric, ecologically informed

Biological Integrity: A Long-Neglected Aspect of Water Resource Management.

  • J. Karr
  • Environmental Science
    Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America
  • 1991
Assessment of water resource quality by sampling biological communities in the field (ambient biological monitoring) is a promising approach that requires expanded use of ecological expertise and the Index of Biotic Integrity provides a broadly based, multiparameter tool for the assessment of biotic integrity in running waters.


This paper begins with the premise that communication regarding ecological risk and ecologically based management decisions should be improved. Failures of communication are attributed to lack of