The Narcissism Spectrum Model: A Synthetic View of Narcissistic Personality

  title={The Narcissism Spectrum Model: A Synthetic View of Narcissistic Personality},
  author={Zlatan Kri{\vz}an and Anne Danielle Herlache},
  journal={Personality and Social Psychology Review},
  pages={3 - 31}
The narcissism spectrum model synthesizes extensive personality, social–psychological, and clinical evidence, building on existing knowledge about narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability to reveal a view of narcissism that respects its clinical origins, embraces the diversity and complexity of its expression, and reflects extensive scientific evidence about the continuity between normal and abnormal personality expression. Critically, the proposed model addresses three key, inter-related… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

The Narcissism Spectrum Model: A Spectrum Perspective on Narcissistic Personality
The narcissism spectrum model synthesizes extensive personality, social-psychological, and clinical evidence, to address three key, interrelated problems that have plagued narcissism scholarship for
Clinical Correlates of Vulnerable and Grandiose Narcissism: A Personality Perspective.
A surprising link was found between grandiose narcissism and multiple indicators of inauthenticity, and implications for the appropriate conceptualization, assessment, and treatment of pathological narcissism are discussed.
Distinguishing Between Grandiose Narcissism, Vulnerable Narcissism, and Narcissistic Personality Disorder
This chapter draws upon the empirical literature to delineate the distinguishing characteristics of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). We find that these
Current conceptualizations of narcissism
This review aims to highlight emerging points of consensus and suggest further directions needed to obtain a more comprehensive and cohesive conceptualization of narcissism, and proposes a multilevel conceptualization that focuses on its manifestation at the trait level, state level, and within-situation level.
The Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Concept
In this chapter, I present a theoretical framework that is aimed at explaining the complex and seemingly paradoxical structure, dynamics, and consequences of grandiose narcissism: the Narcissistic
Exploring the structure of narcissism: Toward an integrated solution.
A three-factor model seems to be the most parsimonious conceptualization of narcissism, and larger factor solutions are discussed, but future research will be necessary to determine the value of these increasingly narrow factors.
Narcissists’ Perceptions of Narcissistic Behavior
Do narcissists view their narcissistic reputations and behavior as a curse or a blessing? Herein, we reviewed studies that have addressed narcissists’ (a) awareness of their narcissistic reputation
Lay theories of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism
In public discourse, narcissism is often portrayed one-sidedly and overly negative, rendering a picture of narcissistic individuals as “toxic people” or “evil characters”. Beyond these salient
Early Impressions of Grandiose Narcissists: A Dual-Pathway Perspective
Getting-to-know situations are complex social contexts both for narcissists (who love to present themselves but are not inherently interested in others) and their social partners (who are fascinated


Trouble ahead, trouble behind: Narcissism and early maladaptive schemas.
On the Meaning and Measure of Narcissism
The studies show that measures of grandiosity and entitlement interact to predict scores on the NPI, controlling for gender, self-esteem, and basic personality, but also that grand Curiosity and entitlement function independently with respect to mental health and ethical misconduct.
Experts' Views Regarding the Conceptualization of Narcissism.
It is suggested that researchers specify the kind of narcissism being assessed in a given study and consider using assessments of the full range of narcissistic features in future research to provide a more comprehensive perspective on the construct.
Narcissistic admiration and rivalry: disentangling the bright and dark sides of narcissism.
It is shown that narcissistic admiration and rivalry are positively correlated dimensions, yet they have markedly different nomological networks and distinct intra- and interpersonal consequences, underscore the utility of a 2-dimensional conceptualization and measurement of narcissism.
Unraveling the Paradoxes of Narcissism: A Dynamic Self-Regulatory Processing Model
We propose a dynamic self-regulatory processing model of narcissism and review supporting evidence. The model casts narcissism in terms of motivated self-construction, in that the narcissist's self
What Does the Narcissistic Personality Inventory Really Measure?
The results suggest that researchers interested in the psychological and behavioral outcomes associated with the NPI should examine correlates at the facet level and propose a hierarchical model for the structure of the N PI.
Comparing clinical and social-personality conceptualizations of narcissism.
The present study compared two measures of narcissism-one used in clinical settings (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, PDQ-4+; Hyler, 1994) and one used in social-personality research (Narcissistic Personality Inventory, NPI) across two samples.
A Glimpse Behind the Mask: Facets of Narcissism and Feelings of Self-Worth
This study examined the connections that the facets of narcissism captured by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory have with self-esteem to suggest that it is important to consider specific facets of narcissisticism when examining feelings of self-worth rather than relying on broader composite measures of narcissistic personality features.