The Na+-Ca2+ exchanger is essential for the action of cardiac glycosides.

@article{Reuter2002TheNE,
  title={The Na+-Ca2+ exchanger is essential for the action of cardiac glycosides.},
  author={Hannes Isaak Reuter and Scott Arzaga Henderson and Tieyan Han and Robert J. Ross and Joshua I. Goldhaber and Kenneth David. Philipson},
  journal={Circulation research},
  year={2002},
  volume={90 3},
  pages={
          305-8
        }
}
The widely accepted model to explain the positive inotropic effect of cardiac glycosides invokes altered Na+-Ca2+ exchange activity secondary to Na+ pump inhibition. However, proof of this model is lacking and alternative mechanisms have been proposed. We directly tested the role of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger in the action of the glycoside ouabain using Na+-Ca2+ exchanger knockout mice. Ablation of the exchanger is embryonic lethal, but contractility can be studied in embryonic heart tubes at day 9… CONTINUE READING

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