The CCR4 transcriptional regulatory complex consisting of CCR4, CAF1, DBF2 and other unidentified factors is one of several groups of proteins that affect gene expression. Using mass spectrometry, we have identified the 195, 185 and 116 kDa species which are part of the CCR4 complex. The 195 and 185 kDa proteins were found to be NOT1 and the 116 kDa species was identical to NOT3. NOT1, 2, 3 and 4 proteins are part of a regulatory complex that negatively affects transcription. All four NOT proteins were found to co-immunoprecipitate with CCR4 and CAF1, and NOT1 co-purified with CCR4 and CAF1 through three chromatographic steps in a complex estimated to be 1.2x10(6) Da in size. Mutations in the NOT genes affected many of the same genes and processes that are affected by defects in the CCR4 complex components, including reduction in ADH2 derepression, defective cell wall integrity and increased sensitivity to monoand divalent ions. Similarly, ccr4, caf1 and dbf2 alleles negatively regulated FUS1-lacZ expression, as do defects in the NOT genes. These results indicate that the NOT proteins are physically and functionally part of the CCR4 complex which forms a unique and novel complex that affects transcription both positively and negatively.