The NOD2-Smoking Interaction in Crohn's Disease is likely Specific to the 1007 fs Mutation and may be Explained by Age at Diagnosis: A Meta-Analysis and Case-Only Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND NOD2 and smoking are risk factors for Crohn's disease. We meta-analyzed NOD2-smoking interactions in Crohn's disease (Phase 1), then explored the effect of age at diagnosis on NOD2-smoking interactions (Phase 2). METHODS Phase 1: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for studies (n=18) providing data on NOD2 and smoking in Crohn's disease. NOD2-smoking interactions were estimated using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated using random effects models. Phase 2: A case-only study compared the proportion of smokers and carriers of the 1007fs variant across ages at diagnosis (≤16, 17-40, >40years). FINDINGS Phase 1: Having ever smoked was less common among carriers of the 1007fs variant of NOD2 (OR 0.74, 95%CI:0.66-0.83). There was no interaction between smoking and the G908R (OR 0.96, 95%CI:0.82-1.13) or the R702W variant (OR 0.89, 95%CI:0.76-1.05). Phase 2: The proportion of patients (n=627) carrying the 1007fs variant decreased with age at diagnosis (≤16years: 15%; 17-40: 12%; >40: 3%; p=0.003). Smoking was more common in older patients (≤16years: 4%; 17-40: 48%; >40: 71%; p<0.001). INTERPRETATION The negative NOD2-smoking interaction in Crohn's disease is specific to the 1007fs variant. However, opposing rates of this variant and smoking across age at diagnosis may explain this negative interaction.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.06.012

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@inproceedings{Kuenzig2017TheNI, title={The NOD2-Smoking Interaction in Crohn's Disease is likely Specific to the 1007 fs Mutation and may be Explained by Age at Diagnosis: A Meta-Analysis and Case-Only Study}, author={M E Kuenzig and Jeff Yim and Stephanie Coward and Bertus Eksteen and C H Seow and Cheryl Barnabe and H W Barkema and Mark S. Silverberg and P L Lakatos and Paul L. Beck and Richard N Fedorak and Levinus Albert Dieleman and Karen L Madsen and Remo Panaccione and Subrata Ghosh and Gilaad G Kaplan}, booktitle={EBioMedicine}, year={2017} }