The Muscles of Mastication in the Caspian Seal (Phoca caspica)

@article{Endo2002TheMO,
  title={The Muscles of Mastication in the Caspian Seal (Phoca caspica)},
  author={Hideki Endo and Shinji Sakata and Takaomi Arai and Nobuyuki Miyazaki},
  journal={Anatomia},
  year={2002},
  volume={31}
}
The muscles of mastication and their related skull characters in the Caspian seal (Phoca caspica) were anatomically examined and compared with those of the Baikal (Phoca sibirica) and ringed (Phoca hispida) seals. A well‐developed masseter muscle was observed in the Caspian seal, whereas the temporal muscle consisted of thin bundles. The skull of the Caspian seal possessed the same thin frontal bone and the dorso‐ventrally developed zygomatic arch found in the Baikal seal that are required to… 
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