The Motherhood Wage Penalty Revisited: Experience, Heterogeneity, Work Effort and Work-Schedule Flexibility

  title={The Motherhood Wage Penalty Revisited: Experience, Heterogeneity, Work Effort and Work-Schedule Flexibility},
  author={Deborah J. Anderson and Melissa Binder and Kate Krause},
  journal={Labor: Demographics \& Economics of the Family},
This paper seeks an explanation for the well-documented wage disadvantage of mothers compared to women without children. An analysis of data from the 1968–88 National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women shows that human capital inputs and unobserved heterogeneity explain 55–57% of the gap. Further analysis suggests that mothers tended to face the highest wage penalty when they first returned to work. A finding that medium-skill mothers (high school graduates) suffered more prolonged and… Expand
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