The Mothematics of Female Pheromone Signaling: Strategies for Aging Virgins

@article{Umbers2015TheMO,
  title={The Mothematics of Female Pheromone Signaling: Strategies for Aging Virgins},
  author={Kate D. L. Umbers and Matthew R. E. Symonds and Hanna Kokko},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  year={2015},
  volume={185},
  pages={417 - 432}
}
Although females rarely experience strong mate limitation, delays or lifelong problems of mate acquisition are detrimental to female fitness. In systems where males search for females via pheromone plumes, it is often difficult to assess whether female signaling is costly. Direct costs include the energetics of pheromone production and attention from unwanted eavesdroppers, such as parasites, parasitoids, and predators. Suboptimal outcomes are also possible from too many or too few mating… 

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