The Montreal Criteria for the Ethical Feasibility of Uterine Transplantation

  title={The Montreal Criteria for the Ethical Feasibility of Uterine Transplantation},
  author={Ariel Lefkowitz and Marcel Edwards and Jacques Balayla},
  journal={Transplant International},
Absolute uterine factor infertility (UFI) refers to the refractory causes of female infertility stemming from the anatomical or physiological inability of a uterus to sustain gestation. Today, uterine factor infertility affects 3–5% of the population. Traditionally, although surrogacy and adoption have been the only viable options for females affected by this condition, the uterine transplant is currently under investigation as a potential medical alternative for women who desire to go through… 

Evolving Ethical Issues with Advances in Uterus Transplantation.

Uterus transplantation: ethical considerations

Clinical trial results provides a basis for weighing the interests of the stakeholders implicated in Utx, and can inform transplant centers’ and regulatory bodies’ development of policies and protocols that will determine access to Utx and allocation of organs, together with other considerations of justice.

Uterus Transplantation: A Step Too Far

There are numerous arguments to conclude that uterus transplantation is not ethically justified, including the justification of UTx itself, risks to donor, recipient, and offspring, and societal costs, both financial and otherwise.

Medical and ethical considerations in uterus transplantation

  • G. BenagianoL. LandeweerdI. Brosens
  • Medicine
    International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
  • 2013

Uterus transplantation in women who are genetically XY

The medical technology does not exist to make uterus transplantation a safe and effective option for genetically XY women, however this group should not be summarily excluded from participation in trials.

Ethical and policy issues raised by uterus transplants

This review summarizes and critiques the academic literature on ethical and policy issues raised by UTx, focusing on three key issues: the choice between deceased and living donors, ensuring valid consent to the procedure and access to treatment.

Uterine transplant: an ethical framework analysis from a Middle Eastern perspective

  • K. Aljerian
  • Medicine
    Current medical research and opinion
  • 2021
An updated ethical analysis of uterine transplant from a Middle Eastern perspective is conducted, using an established ethical framework that has been adapted for the analysis of research in non-Western cultures and developing countries to reveal a significant need for region- and religion-specific ethical guidelines for uterine transplants.

Uterus transplantation An experimental study in primates

Autologous and allogeneic UTx have been demonstrated in a nonhuman primate model proving to be a donor and recipient safe surgical procedure, regardless whether the graft is from a live or a deceased donor.



Uterine transplantation: a promising surrogate to surrogacy?

An overview of the extent and limitations of accumulated scientific knowledge on uterine transplantation, but also its ethical implications, are presented in an effort to define the actual place of such an approach among the therapeutic arsenal for alleviating infertility.

The Ethics of Uterus Transplantation

The ethical issues raised by UTx are explored with a focus on the potential gap between women's desires and aspirations about pregnancy and the likely functional outcomes of successful UTx.

Transplantation of female genital organs

Transplantation surgery is also entering the field of gynecology and in the future several types of transplantations of organs/tissues of the female reproductive tract may become established clinical procedures.

Pregnancy and outcome of uterine allotransplantation and assisted reproduction in sheep.

Replantation of uterus and ovaries in dogs, with successful pregnancy.

These studies apparently represent the first in which vascular anastomoses were used for successful uterine replantation and were supported by aortography, hysterography, studies of vaginal epithelium, and evidence of ovulation.

Extension of organ transplantation: some ethical considerations.

  • G. Agich
  • Medicine
    The Mount Sinai journal of medicine, New York
  • 2003
Transplant programs considering an extension of traditional transplantation should develop formal protocols that include assessment of costs, benefits, quality of life, and the adequacy of informed consent.

Transplantation of the human uterus

  • W. FageehH. RaffaH. JabbadA. Marzouki
  • Medicine
    International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
  • 2002

Drug Safety Issues in Pregnancy Following Transplantation and Immunosuppression

Current data from the literature, as well as from reports from the National Transplantation Pregnancy Registry, support the concept that immuno suppression be maintained at appropriate levels during pregnancy.

The effect of hysterectomy on sexuality and psychological changes

Women are more likely to report improved sexual functioning after the surgery when their symptoms have been alleviated, and a new hysterectomy procedure that ‘spares’ abdominal ligaments and nerves is quicker and results in less blood loss and shorter hospital stays and seems to respect the tissues more, without affecting the sexuality of the women.

Report from the National Transplantation Pregnancy Registry (NTPR): outcomes of pregnancy after transplantation.

Extensive data published on azathioprine and cyclosporine treated recipients suggests that while there is a pattern of prematurity among the newborn there has not been an increase in the incidence or pattern of specific malformations notedamong the newborn.