The Molecular Requirements for Cytokinesis

  title={The Molecular Requirements for Cytokinesis},
  author={Michael Glotzer},
  pages={1735 - 1739}
After anaphase onset, animal cells build an actomyosin contractile ring that constricts the plasma membrane to generate two daughter cells connected by a cytoplasmic bridge. The bridge is ultimately severed to complete cytokinesis. Myriad techniques have been used to identify proteins that participate in cytokinesis in vertebrates, insects, and nematodes. A conserved core of about 20 proteins are individually involved with cytokinesis in most animal cells. These components are found in the… 

Cytokinesis: welcome to the Rho zone.

Cytokinetic abscission in animal cells.

Dissecting protein interactions during cytokinesis

Recent findings that reveal a complex network of protein interactions during the early stages of cytokinesis including evidence for a direct interaction between Polo Kinase and RacGAP50C as well as unpublished data suggesting other interactions of interest within the contractile ring are discussed.

Cytokinesis in animal cells.

This review provides an overview of four topics in animal cell cytokinesis: signaling between the anaphase spindle and cortex, the mechanics of cortical remodeling, abscission, and regulation of cytokineis by the cell cycle machinery.

Animal cell cytokinesis: The role of dynamic changes in the plasma membrane proteome and lipidome.

  • G. Gould
  • Biology
    Seminars in cell & developmental biology
  • 2016

Breaking up is hard to do – membrane traffic in cytokinesis

Recent studies have shown that cytokinesis in animal and plant cells may not be as distinct as these models imply – both have an absolute requirement for vesicle traffic.

Endosomal trafficking in animal cytokinesis.

This review highlights many of the recent advances in understanding of the function and mechanisms of action of the endocytic protein machinery that control animal cytokinesis, which includes regulation of endosome delivery and targeting by Rab and ARF GTPases, their effectors FIP3, FIP4 and JIP4, the exocyst and centralsplindlin complexes and phosphoinositides.

Cytokinesis in animal cells.

The cytoskeletal structures, factors, and signaling pathways that orchestrate this robust and yet highly dynamic process in animal cells, known as cytokinesis, are described.



A putative exchange factor for Rho1 GTPase is required for initiation of cytokinesis in Drosophila.

Pbl is identified as a RhoGEF specifically required for cytokinesis and linked through Rho1 activity to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton at the cleavage furrow.


It is shown that the cyk-4 gene encodes a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for Rho family GTPases, which could accelerate GTP hydrolysis by RhoA, thereby allowing contractile ring disassembly and completion of cytokinesis.

Drosophila citron kinase is required for the final steps of cytokinesis.

It is shown that the Drosophila orthologue of mammalian Citron kinases is essential for the final events of the cytokinetic process, suggesting that the wild-type function of dck is required for abscission at the end of cytokinesis.

Dissecting Temporal and Spatial Control of Cytokinesis with a Myosin II Inhibitor

It is shown that exit from the cytokinetic phase of the cell cycle depends on ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and continuous signals from microtubules are required to maintain the position of the cleavage furrow, and these signals control the localization of myosin II independently of other furrow components.

Cytokinesis and midzone microtubule organization in Caenorhabditis elegans require the kinesin-like protein ZEN-4.

The identification of a null allele of zen-4, an MKLP1 homologue in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, is reported and it is demonstrated that ZEN-4 is essential for cytokinesis, suggesting that these microtubules are required for the completion of cytokineses.

Role of citron kinase as a target of the small GTPase Rho in cytokinesis

The proposed citron kinase regulates cytokinesis at a step after Rho in the contractile process, and is related to the Rho-associated kinases ROCK and ROK, which regulate myosin-based contractility.

Cytokinesis mediated through the recruitment of cortexillins into the cleavage furrow

Cortexillins are suggested to have a targeting signal for coupling to a myosin II‐independent system that directs transport of membrane proteins to the cleavage furrow.