The Molecular Biology of Memory Storage: A Dialogue Between Genes and Synapses

  title={The Molecular Biology of Memory Storage: A Dialogue Between Genes and Synapses},
  author={Eric R. Kandel},
  pages={1030 - 1038}
  • E. Kandel
  • Published 2 November 2001
  • Biology, Psychology
  • Science
One of the most remarkable aspects of an animal's behavior is the ability to modify that behavior by learning, an ability that reaches its highest form in human beings. For me, learning and memory have proven to be endlessly fascinating mental processes because they address one of the fundamental features of human activity: our ability to acquire new ideas from experience and to retain these ideas over time in memory. Moreover, unlike other mental processes such as thought, language, and… 

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  • 2008

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Study in the mollusk Aplysia showed that learning involves the strengthening and increased effectiveness of preexisting synapses, and studies in Drosophila and rodents have revealed that this process involves activation of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-mediated transcriptional cascade.

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Overall, the diversity of molecular mechanisms underlying memories that naturally decay contrasts with more unified molecular mechanisms implicated in long‐lasting changes.

Chapter 1: Molecular Signaling in Memory 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Synaptic Plasticity and Memory

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The recent evidence for structural changes in learning is considered by considering the structural changes that accompany long-term memory and how they compare with the de novo synapse formation and synaptic pruning that occur during development.

Cellular Basis of Behavior: An Introduction to Behavioral Neurology

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This review focuses primarily on short-term sensitization of the gill and siphon reflex in the marine mollusk, Aplysia californica, and analyses of this form of learning provide direct evidence that protein phosphorylation dependent on cyclic adenosine monophosphate can modulate synaptic action.

Ultrastructural Plasticity of Excitatory Synapses

  • D. Muller
  • Biology
    Reviews in the neurosciences
  • 1997
Several recent findings are consistent with the hypothesis that patterns of neuronal activity of the type that induce Hebbian modifications of synaptic strength also contribute to the formation and remodelling of connections during development and adulthood.

The medial temporal lobe memory system

The medial temporal lobe memory system is needed to bind together the distributed storage sites in neocortex that represent a whole memory, but the role of this system is only temporary, as time passes after learning, memory stored in neoc cortex gradually becomes independent of medialporal lobe structures.

Gene discovery in Drosophila: new insights for learning and memory.

The current state of genetic analysis of learning and memory in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, is reviewed, suggesting that core cellular mechanisms of simple forms of learning are evolutionarily conserved and biological pathways discovered in invertebrates are likely to be conserved in vertebrates as well.

Target-dependent structural changes accompanying long-term synaptic facilitation in Aplysia neurons.

Both the structural changes and the synaptic facilitation of Aplysia sensorimotor synapses accompanying long-term behavioral sensitization can be produced in vitro by applying a single facilitating transmitter repeatedly.