The MoCA

@article{DalrympleAlford2010TheM,
  title={The MoCA},
  author={John C. Dalrymple-Alford and Michael R. MacAskill and Christos T. Nakas and Leslie Livingston and Charlotte Graham and G P Crucian and Tracy R. Melzer and Jeff Kirwan and Ross J. Keenan and S. Wells and Robert J. Porter and Richard Watts and Tim J. Anderson},
  journal={Neurology},
  year={2010},
  volume={75},
  pages={1717 - 1725}
}
OBJECTIVE To establish the diagnostic accuracy of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) when screening externally validated cognition in Parkinson disease (PD), by comparison with a PD-focused test (Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson disease-Cognition [SCOPA-COG]) and the standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (S-MMSE) as benchmarks. [...] Key Method The 21 patients with dementia (PD-D) were diagnosed using Movement Disorders Society criteria, externally validated by detailed independent functional and…Expand
The MoCA and ADL Items Separate Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Parkinson's Disease
The aim of this study is to establish a brief screening tool to classify PD patients as PD with normal cognition (PD-N), PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and PD patients withExpand
Test the Best: Classification Accuracies of Four Cognitive Rating Scales for Parkinson's Disease Mild Cognitive Impairment.
TLDR
The results show that the MoCA is the most discriminative tool for screening MCI in the PD population. Expand
Comparison of the use of screening tools for evaluating cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease
TLDR
The study suggests that the MoCA test can be a good screening test in PD, however, the Mini-Mental State Examination associated with the clock drawing test may be more effective than theMoCA. Expand
Screening Mild and Major Neurocognitive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the MoCA may be the most suitable test for detecting mild and major NCD in PD. Expand
Screening for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease: Comparison of the Italian Versions of Three Neuropsychological Tests
TLDR
In Italian-speaking PD patients, MMSE might represent a good screening tool for PD-MCI, because of the shorter time of administration and the performance comparable to those of MoCA and ACE-R. Expand
Diagnosis of possible mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: validity of the SCOPA-Cog.
TLDR
The ability of the Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease-Cognition (SCOPA-Cog) to discriminate possible PD-MCI cases from patients with PD-dementia (PDD) and from cognitively intact PD subjects is assessed. Expand
Montreal Cognitive Assessment for the screening and prediction of cognitive decline in early Parkinson's disease.
TLDR
MoCA is a reliable tool in predicting Cognitive decline in early PD and its predictive utility in determining longitudinal cognitive decline in PD is reliable. Expand
The MMSE and MoCA for Screening Cognitive Impairment in Less Educated Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
TLDR
Both MMSE and MoCA can be used to screen for dementia in patients with PD, regardless of educational level; however, neither test is sufficient to discriminate MCI from normal cognition without additional information. Expand
Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease: Improving the Diagnostic Utility of the MoCA through Subtest Weighting
TLDR
This pilot study demonstrates that the sensitivity of the MoCA can be enhanced substantially by an empirically based weighting procedure and that the proposed scoring algorithm may serve theMoCA’s actual purpose as a screening tool in the detection of cognitive dysfunction in PD patients better than the original scoring. Expand
Abnormal MoCA and normal range MMSE scores in Parkinson disease without dementia: cognitive and neurochemical correlates.
TLDR
The MoCA may be able to preferentially detect executive dysfunction compared to the MMSE, but the MoCA has limited diagnostic accuracy for PD-MCI, and should not be used alone to make this diagnosis. Expand
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References

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Validity of the MoCA and MMSE in the detection of MCI and dementia in Parkinson disease
TLDR
The Montreal Cognitive Assessment has adequate psychometric properties as a screening instrument for the detection of mild cognitive impairment or dementia in Parkinson disease, however, a positive screen using either instrument requires additional assessment due to suboptimal specificity at the recommended screening cutoff point. Expand
Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: Tools for diagnosis and assessment
TLDR
Further research on PD‐specific tools seems mandatory to help establish accurate cut‐off scores for the diagnosis of mild PDD, detect cognitive profiles more prone to the future development of dementia, and allow comparisons between different descriptive or interventional studies. Expand
A comparison of the mini mental state exam to the montreal cognitive assessment in identifying cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease
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TLDR
Compared to the MMSE, the Montreal cognitive assessment may be a more sensitive tool to identify early cognitive impairment in PD. Expand
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TLDR
The SCOPA-COG is a short, reliable, and valid instrument that is sensitive to the specific cognitive deficits in Parkinson’s disease and showed a clear trend toward lower cognition scores for patients with more advanced PD. Expand
Mild cognitive impairment is common in Parkinson's disease patients with normal Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores.
TLDR
Cognitive deficits are common in PD patients with "normal" cognition based on Mini-Mental State Examination performance, suggesting that MCI is under-recognized in clinical practice due to routine use of insensitive screening instruments. Expand
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TLDR
It is indicated that impairment in verbal memory and executive function are associated with the development of dementia in patients with PD. Expand
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TLDR
The criterion-related validity and test—retest reliability for ADAS-cog in patients with PDD and strong correlations with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score are demonstrated, which supports the validity of previous results obtained with these measures in studies of patients withPDD. Expand
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TLDR
Estimates of cognitive impairment and dementia in PD patients are largely dependent on the diagnostic measure used, and the overall rate on routine outpatient neurological care is 28.6%, but using more sensitive neuropsychological measures, rates for cognitive impairment might be up to 2-fold higher. Expand
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TLDR
It is concluded that patients with PD and MCI had a higher risk of developing dementia than cognitively intact PD patients, suggesting that MCI in PD is an early manifestation of dementia. Expand
Prodromal frontal/executive dysfunction predicts incident dementia in Parkinson’s disease
TLDR
It is suggested that subtle frontal0executive dysfunction is evident during the immediate PDD prodrome and may be of prognostic value in identifying PD patients at risk for dementia. Expand
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