The Mixmaster universe is chaotic

@article{Cornish1997TheMU,
  title={The Mixmaster universe is chaotic},
  author={Neil J. Cornish and Janna Levin},
  journal={Physical Review Letters},
  year={1997},
  volume={78},
  pages={998-1001}
}
For the past decade there has been a considerable debate about the existence of chaos in the mixmaster cosmological model. The debate has been hampered by the coordinate, or observer dependence of standard chaotic indicators such as Lyapanov exponents. Here we use coordinate independent, fractal methods to show the mixmaster universe is indeed chaotic. 
Fractal threshold behavior in vacuum gravitational collapse.
TLDR
It is shown that a flip of the wings of a butterfly may influence the process of the black hole formation.
The Mixmaster Universe in Five Dimensions
We consider a five dimensional vacuum cosmology with Bianchi type-IX spatial geometry and an extra non-compact coordinate. Finding a new class of solutions, we examine and rule out the possibility of
Chaotic motion in pp-wave spacetimes
We investigate geodesics in non-homogeneous vacuum pp-wave solutions and demonstrate their chaotic behaviour by rigorous analytic and numerical methods. For the particular class of solutions
A new interpretation of zero Lyapunov exponents in BKL time for Mixmaster cosmology
A global relationship between cosmological time and Belinskii-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz (BKL) time during the entire evolution of the Mixmaster Bianchi IX universe is used to explain why all the Lyapunov
Dynamics and chaos in the unified scalar field cosmology II. System in a finite box
We revisit the global dynamics of unified dark matter cosmological models and analyze it in a new dynamical system setting. In particular, by defining a suitable set of variables we obtain a bounded
Chaotic scattering and capture of strings by a black hole
We consider scattering and capture of circular cosmic strings by a Schwarzschild black hole. Although it is a priori a very simple axially symmetric two-body problem, it shows all the features of
CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM FEATURES OF THE MIXMASTER SINGULARITY
This review paper is devoted to analyzing the main properties of the cosmological singularity associated with the homogeneous and inhomogeneous Mixmaster model. After the introduction of the main
Accelerating Universe from Modified Kasner Model in Extra Dimensions
We find the power-law solutions in (4 + n)-dimensional cosmology with time-varying cosmological constant and study the phase of cosmic evolution. The model corresponds to the modification of the
Controlling chaos through compactification in cosmological models with a collapsing phase
We consider the effect of compactification of extra dimensions on the onset of classical chaotic mixmaster behavior during cosmic contraction. Assuming a universe that is well-approximated as a
Dynamics and chaos in the unified scalar field cosmology
We study the dynamics of the closed scalar field FRW cosmological models in the framework of the so-called unified dark matter (UDM) scenario. Performing a theoretical as well as a numerical analysis
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-2 OF 2 REFERENCES
The Mixmaster universe: A Chaotic Farey tale
When gravitational fields are at their strongest, the evolution of spacetime is thought to be highly erratic. Over the past decade debate has raged over whether this evolution can be classified as
Chaos in dynamical systems
Preface 1. Introduction and overview 2. One-dimensional maps 3. Strange attractors and fractal dimensions 4. Dynamical properties of chaotic systems 5. Nonattracting chaotic sets 6. Quasiperiodicity