The Miocene: The Future of the Past

  title={The Miocene: The Future of the Past},
  author={Margaret Steinthorsdottir and Helen K. Coxall and Agatha M. Boer and Matthew Huber and Natasha Barbolini and Catherine D. Bradshaw and Natalie J. Burls and Sarah J. Feakins and Edward G. W. Gasson and Jorijntje Henderiks and Ann E. Holbourn and Steffen Kiel and Matthew J. Kohn and Gregor Knorr and Wolfram M K{\"u}rschner and Caroline H. Lear and Diederik Liebrand and Daniel J. Lunt and Thomas M{\"o}rs and Paul N. Pearson and Matthew J. Pound and Heather M. Stoll and Caroline A. E. Str{\"o}mberg},
  journal={Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology},
The Miocene epoch (23.03–5.33 Ma) was a time interval of global warmth, relative to today. Continental configurations and mountain topography transitioned toward modern conditions, and many flora and fauna evolved into the same taxa that exist today. Miocene climate was dynamic: long periods of early and late glaciation bracketed a ∼2 Myr greenhouse interval—the Miocene Climatic Optimum (MCO). Floras, faunas, ice sheets, precipitation, pCO2, and ocean and atmospheric circulation mostly (but not… 
Simulating Miocene Warmth: Insights From an Opportunistic Multi‐Model Ensemble (MioMIP1)
The Miocene epoch, spanning 23.03–5.33 Ma, was a dynamic climate of sustained, polar amplified warmth. Miocene atmospheric CO2 concentrations are typically reconstructed between 300 and 600 ppm and
Near‐Future pCO2 During the Hot Miocene Climatic Optimum
To improve future predictions of anthropogenic climate change, a better understanding of the relationship between global temperature and atmospheric concentrations of CO2 (pCO2), or climate
Deep Heat: Proxies, Miocene Ice, and an End in Sight for Paleoclimate Paradoxes?
  • David Evans
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology
  • 2021
The mid Miocene represents an important target for paleoclimatic study because the atmospheric CO2 concentration ranged from near modern values to ∼800 ppm, while a large, dynamic Antarctic ice sheet
Competing influences of the ocean, atmosphere and solid earth on transient Miocene Antarctic ice sheet variability
Abstract. Benthic δ18O levels vary strongly during the warmer-than-modern early- and mid-Miocene (23 to 14 Myr ago), suggesting a dynamic Antarctic ice sheet (AIS). So far, however, realistic
Middle Miocene (∼14 Ma) and Late Miocene (∼6 Ma) Paleogeographic Boundary Conditions
During the Miocene, major global cooling occurred during two intervals: the middle Miocene (∼14–13 Ma) and the late Miocene (∼7‐6 Ma). The Antarctic Ice Sheet expanded substantially at ∼14–13 Ma, and
Data-constrained assessment of ocean circulation changes since the middle Miocene in an Earth system model
Abstract. Since the middle Miocene, 15 Ma (million years ago), the Earth’s climate has undergone a long-term cooling trend, characterised by a reduction in sea surface temperatures by over 6 °C, with
Southern Ocean bottom-water cooling and ice sheet expansion during the middle Miocene climate transition
Abstract. The middle Miocene climate transition (MMCT), around 14 Ma, was associated with a significant climatic shift, but the mechanisms triggering the event remain enigmatic. We present a clumped
The mid-Miocene Zhangpu biota reveals an outstandingly rich rainforest biome in East Asia
The results not only highlight the role of tropical rainforests acting as evolutionary museums for biodiversity at the generic level but also suggest that the MMCO probably strongly shaped the East Asian biota via the northern expansion of the megathermal rainforest biome.
Effects of CO2 and Ocean Mixing on Miocene and Pliocene Temperature Gradients
Cenozoic climate changes have been linked to tectonic activity and variations in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Here, we present Miocene and Pliocene sensitivity experiments performed with the


Middle Miocene climate and vegetation models and their validation with proxy data
A warm Miocene climate at low atmospheric CO2 levels
Proxy records from the Miocene epoch (∼23‐5 Ma) indicate a warmer climate than today in spite of lower atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the range of preindustrial levels. As yet the
Mid-Miocene cooling and the extinction of tundra in continental Antarctica
The discovery of exceptionally well preserved fossils of lacustrine and terrestrial organisms from the McMurdo Dry Valleys sector of the Transantarctic Mountains are reported, providing novel constraints for the timing and amplitude of middle-Miocene cooling in Antarctica and revealing the ecological legacy of this global climate transition.
The challenge of simulating the warmth of the mid-Miocene climatic optimum in CESM1
Abstract. The mid-Miocene climatic optimum (MMCO) is an intriguing climatic period due to its above-modern temperatures in mid-to-high latitudes in the presence of close-to-modern CO2 concentrations.
The evolution of pCO2, ice volume and climate during the middle Miocene
Effects of CO 2 , continental distribution, topography and vegetation changes on the climate at the Middle Miocene: a model study
Abstract. The Middle Miocene was one of the last warm periods of the Neogene, culminating with the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO, approximatively 17–15 Ma). Several proxy-based
Comparing early to middle Miocene terrestrial climate simulations with geological data.
The early to middle Miocene was significantly warmer than present, particularly at high latitudes. Relatively few climatic details are known about this time period compared with earlier (e.g.,
Late Miocene decoupling of oceanic warmth and atmospheric carbon dioxide forcing
It is proposed that a relatively deep global thermocline, reductions in low-latitude gradients in sea surface temperature, and cloud and water vapour feedbacks may help to explain the warmth of the late Miocene.
Modeling the Miocene Climatic Optimum. Part I: Land and Atmosphere*
AbstractThis study presents results from the Community Climate System Model 3 (CCSM3) forced with early to middle Miocene (~20–14 Ma) vegetation, topography, bathymetry, and modern CO2. A decrease in