The Mini‐Mental State Examination: A Comprehensive Review

  title={The Mini‐Mental State Examination: A Comprehensive Review},
  author={Tom N. Tombaugh and Nancy J. McIntyre},
  journal={Journal of the American Geriatrics Society},
The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of information accumulated over the past 26 years regarding the psychometric properties and utility of the Mini‐Mental State Examination (MMSE). 
Mini-Mental State Examination: a 30-year story
The causes of the Mini-Mental State Examination wide acceptance and diffusion all over the world until today and the reasons for using it also in the forthcoming years are discussed.
Characteristics of Mini‐Mental State Examination 1 year after stroke
  • P. Appelros
  • Medicine, Education
    Acta neurologica Scandinavica
  • 2005
The purpose of this study was to describe the properties of MMSE in relation to different stroke characteristics as well as to evaluate cognition after stroke.
Comparison of In‐Person and Telephone Administration of the Mini‐Mental State Examination in the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging
To validate the Mini‐Mental State Examination (MMSE) Telephone (MMSET) against the MMSE, the MMSET is replaced with a telephone version.
Sensitivity and Specificity of the Mini‐Mental State Examination for Identifying Dementia in the Oldest‐Old: The 90+ Study
To evaluate the and specificity of the Mini‐Mental State Examination (MMSE) in identifying dementia in the oldest‐old when stratified by age and education.
Use of Serial Mini‐Mental State Examinations to Diagnose and Monitor Delirium in Elderly Hospital Patients
To determine the responsiveness of serial Mini‐Mental State Examinations (MMSEs) for the diagnosis and monitoring of delirium in elderly hospital patients, a large number of patients receive MMSEs every year.
Screening for cognitive impairment in older general hospital patients: comparison of the Six‐Item Cognitive Impairment Test with the Mini‐Mental State Examination
To investigate the performance and usability of the Six‐Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6CIT) as a screening instrument for cognitive impairment in older, general hospital inpatients/outpatients.
Cognitive Screening of Nursing Home Residents: Factor Structures of the Mini‐Mental State Examination
Examining factor structures of the Mini‐Mental State Examination aims to replicate any of previously proposed 2‐factor solutions and explore the presence of clinically more differentiated and statistically stable factor structures representing common neurocognitive dimensions.
Age‐ and education‐specific reference values for the Mini‐Mental and Modified Mini‐Mental State Examinations derived from a non‐demented elderly population
To report age‐ and education‐specific reference values for the Mini‐Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Modified Mini‐mental State (3MS) Examination.
Utility of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination – Revised for the diagnosis of dementia syndromes
The utility of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination – Revised (ACE‐R) as a screening tool for dementia is evaluated.


The utility and generality of Mini-Mental State Examination scores in Alzheimer's disease.
Overall performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination proved to have good concurrent validity with other comprehensive neuropsychological assessment instruments, but the MMSE subsections should not be viewed as highly specific measures of cognition or memory.
Alzheimer's dementia: performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination.
Pour 141 cas de demence d'Alzheimer, les resultats du «Mini-Mental State Examination» ont ete analyses: des correlations negatives avec la duree de la maladie sont trouvees, pour tous les items
Relationship of health and demographic characteristics to Mini-Mental State Examination score among community residents
Synopsis Mini-Mental State findings from an age 60+ random community sample (N = 1681) indicate that score is related to education, age and race (but not sex) and to functional status, but not to
Mini-mental state examination in neurological patients.
The Mini-Mental State examination has been found to be a quick and valuable test for simple bedside screening, and for serial assessment of cognitive function in a population of 126 neurological patients, but was not a sensitive indicator of focal versus diffuse hemisphere disease.
Educational level differences on the Mini-Mental State: the role of test bias
No evidence was found to indicate that the MMSE is a biased measure of cognitive impairment, and its validity was assessed separately in the more- and less-educated members of a community sample.
The association of education and socioeconomic status with the Mini Mental State Examination and the clinical diagnosis of dementia in elderly people.
Increasing age, lower socioeconomic group and less education were all found to be associated with lower scores on MMSE, but only increasing age was significantly related to an increase in the diagnosis of dementia.
Limitations of the Mini‐Mental State Examination in predicting neuropsychological functioning in a psychiatric sample
The results suggest that the MMSE may seriously underestimate cognitive impairment in samples exclusively composed of psychiatric patients, making it inappropriate to rely solely on this instrument to distinguish psychiatric patients with and without cognitive deficit.
Reliability and Validity Of Mental Status Questionnaires In Elderly Hospitalized Patients
  • M. Foreman
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Nursing research
  • 1987
Reliability and validity of three mental status questionnaires—the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire, Mini-Mental State Examination, and Cognitive Capacity Screening Examination (CCSE)—were
Psychiatric disturbances in neurological patients: Detection, recognition, and Hospital Course
The Mini‐Mental State and General Health Questionnaire were used to detect cognitive defects and emotional disturbances, respectively, in 126 consecutively admitted neurological patients. The
Reliability and validity of the Mini-Mental State Exam in neurologically intact elderly.
Reliability and validity of MMSE were explored in a sample of 122 healthy, community-residing elderly volunteers between the ages of 57 and 85, who were tested with a battery of neuropsychological