The Metaphorical Structure of the Human Conceptual System

  title={The Metaphorical Structure of the Human Conceptual System},
  author={George Lakoff and Mark Johnson},
  journal={Cogn. Sci.},
If anything is central to Cognitive Science, it is the nature of the human conceptual system. We have found that that system is fundamentally metaphorical in character. That is, it contains metaphorical as well as nonmetaphorical concepts, and the metaphorical structure is extremely rich and complex. Nonmetaphorical concepts are those that emerge directly from our experience and are defined in their own terms. These include at least (1) spatial orientations (e.g., UpDOWN, IN-OUT, NEAR-FAR… 

The Common Element Effect of Abstract-to-Abstract Mapping in Language Processing

A dynamic model is proposed in which mappings between concepts are influenced by common elements, including symbolic or embodied information, which would depend on how difficult it is for a concept to be learned or accessed.

How to Represent Abstract Concepts? From the Perspective of Conceptual Metaphor Theory

How human understand and represent concepts is always a hot topic in cognitive psychology. According to the conceptual metaphor theory 1, 2, understanding and representing abstract concepts rely on

Embodied concept mapping: Blending structure-mapping and embodiment theories

It is argued that concepts are grounded in perceptual and motor experience with physical and social environments and embedded in the Structure-Mapping Theory (SMT), a model for metaphorical processing and reasoning.

Metaphor and Coupling: An Embodied, Action-Oriented Perspective

This study offers an embodied, action-oriented perspective on metaphor. It weaves together 3 theoretical ideas: (a) Lakoff & Johnson's (1980a, 1980b, 1980c; Lakoff, 1993) idea that metaphors are

Tense in a vectorial model for the conceptualization of time

A mathematical model is provided that represents the information codified by three systems based upon Reichenbach's temporal variables by means of a Euclidean vector, which will allow the computational implementation of the model in NLP systems to be carried out.

Conceptions of the Self in the Zhuangzi : Conceptual Metaphor Analysis and Comparative Thought

The purpose here is to explore metaphorical conceptions of the self in a fourth century B.C.E. Chinese text, the Zhuangzi, from the perspective of cognitive linguistics and the contemporary theory of

How Conceptual Metaphors are Productive of Spatial-Graphical Expressions

  • T. Clausner
  • Psychology
    Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society
  • 2019
This paper addresses the problem of how spatial-graphical repre- sentations convey abstract meanings by means of metaphors, which allow us to understand or express abstract concepts in terms of concrete expressions, and proposes a strategy to address this problem.

Understanding Metaphors: The Paradox of Unlike Things Compared

It is concluded that comparison theories of metaphor are fundamentally flawed, because a metaphor cannot always be understood in terms of its corresponding simile, and because such metaphors can be processed directly as categorization assertions.

Dynamics in Metaphor Comprehension - A Cross-cultural Web-based Experiment on Understanding Teacher Metaphors

This work is dedicated to exploring the process of metaphor comprehension. There are a number of cognitive theories addressing this issue, including the conceptual metaphor theory (Lakoff and



Metaphors We Live by

People use metaphors every time they speak. Some of those metaphors are literary - devices for making thoughts more vivid or entertaining. But most are much more basic than that - they're "metaphors

A framework for representing knowledge

An Alternative to Checklist Theories of Meaning

Proceedings of the First Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society (1975), pp. 123-131

Scripfs. plans. goals, and understanding. Hillsdale. NJ: Erlbaum

  • Scripfs. plans. goals, and understanding. Hillsdale. NJ: Erlbaum
  • 1977

Explorarions in cognition

  • Explorarions in cognition
  • 1975