The Metaphorical Structure of the Human Conceptual System

@article{Lakoff1980TheMS,
  title={The Metaphorical Structure of the Human Conceptual System},
  author={George Lakoff and Mark Johnson},
  journal={Cogn. Sci.},
  year={1980},
  volume={4},
  pages={195-208}
}
If anything is central to Cognitive Science, it is the nature of the human conceptual system. We have found that that system is fundamentally metaphorical in character. That is, it contains metaphorical as well as nonmetaphorical concepts, and the metaphorical structure is extremely rich and complex. Nonmetaphorical concepts are those that emerge directly from our experience and are defined in their own terms. These include at least (1) spatial orientations (e.g., UpDOWN, IN-OUT, NEAR-FAR… 

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