The Mentality of Crows: Convergent Evolution of Intelligence in Corvids and Apes

@article{Emery2004TheMO,
  title={The Mentality of Crows: Convergent Evolution of Intelligence in Corvids and Apes},
  author={Nathan J. Emery and Nicola S. Clayton},
  journal={Science},
  year={2004},
  volume={306},
  pages={1903 - 1907}
}
Discussions of the evolution of intelligence have focused on monkeys and apes because of their close evolutionary relationship to humans. Other large-brained social animals, such as corvids, also understand their physical and social worlds. Here we review recent studies of tool manufacture, mental time travel, and social cognition in corvids, and suggest that complex cognition depends on a “tool kit” consisting of causal reasoning, flexibility, imagination, and prospection. Because corvids and… 

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