The Menstrual Mark: Menstruation as Social Stigma

@article{JohnstonRobledo2013TheMM,
  title={The Menstrual Mark: Menstruation as Social Stigma},
  author={Ingrid Johnston-Robledo and Joan C. Chrisler},
  journal={Sex Roles},
  year={2013},
  volume={68},
  pages={9-18}
}
In this theoretical paper, we argue that menstruation is a source of social stigma for women. The word stigma refers to any stain or mark that renders the individual’s body or character defective. This stigma is transmitted through powerful socialization agents in popular culture such as advertisements and educational materials. We demonstrate, in our review of the psychological literature concerning attitudes and experiences of predominantly American girls and women, that the stigmatized… 
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